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Transcript for Rihla 2013: Introduction to Logic

Transcript Details

Event Name: Rihla 2013: Introduction to Logic
Description: Introduction to Logic - Shaykh Hamza Yusuf 14 Episodes Based on the “Isagoge” of Imam Athir al-Din al-Abhari, this course will introduce students to the science of logic, a prerequisite before serious study of any of the other sciences. In this course students will be introduced to terms, concepts, the five predicables, definitions, propositions, opposition, conversion, syllogisms, and other basic aspects of correct thinking.
Transcription Date: 4/4/2019
Transcript Version: 1
Original Reference URL: Youtube Video

Transcript Text

which means a lot more suddenly was said

no more water color see than a Muhammad

SAW said him to Steven do you have the

do you have what the picture they took

didn't you take one of the pictures at

the beginning that that was at know what

they said at the beginning yeah did you

take that yeah but um did the this is

this is an ancient city that were in you

know the before the Muslims were here it

was a cone iam so it had a pre Islamic

history but it was the capital the

Seljuk one of the great dynasties of the

and great they were great servants of

Islam the Seljuk Empire and this this

was their capital but now it's honored

yeah now it's honored because it houses

the no not that it was that roomies at


the its it's a city that people from all

over the world visit and they go to

visit the the scholar and the saint and

the poet Gilardi no bro me who's

actually Gilardi no Balki

he's originally from Afghanistan his his

father was from the time people bene

time which is one of the clans of our

age so on his father's side he's a

Beckett II a tiny from Abu Bakr Siddiq

and then on his mother's side his his

grandfather was a scholar was a from

ruling family in Central Asia so you

know we were at the maqam yesterday and

and whenever they would teach the math

now II they always began with the verse

from the methanal II in the first lesson

which is never think that the paths to

God are difficult to pass never think

that the paths to God are difficult to

pass to work with holiness is never

difficult and that's reiterated by even

Avila who says that if you think that

Allah can't change you in one moment

then you know nothing about the power of

our loss behind with the ANA so we're

here in the city and it's it's a really

beautiful city it's noted for its piety

in Turkey amongst the big cities it has

about a million half the people here but

they're noted for their piety and

somebody asked one of the people that's

helping us here who's from cunha what

they do for their nightlife he said come

in Ramadan and we'll show you our

nightlife that's a good answer

but the you know Madonna is he was a

very notable scholar he was not an

insignificant scholar he was actually

known for his mastery of the sciences of

Islam and he was a exoteric scholar for

a good part of the first part of his

life his father was a very well-known in

Central Asia and he was born in 1604

which is around 1207 by the Christian

era but he his father got in a lot of

trouble because he was a he wouldn't be

silent about a lot of the abuses and

innovations of the rulers of battle in

that area and so he would go around

preaching and he actually had a lot of

influence he was very influential as a

preacher and a scholar and so he was he

was basically persecuted so that he left

battle in 1607 and he went on a journey

his son at that point was about three

years old so they had to leave with

their and to make his era from a place

of persecution to a freer place what's

interesting though is within a year

about who was completely destroyed by

the Mongols so allah subhanho wa taala

many many of the scholars died and it

was a terrible time for the Muslims but

Allah wanted something else for for that

family and obviously particularly for

July Rodino Rumi but he went to they

went to Damascus they were in different

places he actually met funny they

thought him when he was a very young boy

because he was and but he didn't Dean I

thought it gave him his famous book of

poems and he actually said that he's

going to be a great poet he told his

father that he was going to be a great

poet and a master of the path and and

then when he when he came they ended up

in cunha and he was trained here and I

think what

a lot of people who are from the Arab

world are maybe not as familiar with the

the Scholastic tradition of this part of

the world but they were very very

serious students they had a great

madrasah system

there were several mattresses in this

town which were colleges not schools

there were colleges what we would call

colleges today religious colleges but

they were religious colleges where they

studied many many Sciences in the West

we have the concept of the Trivium which

are the the three language arts in in

the Muslim world there were about 30

language arts that they would masters so

it was a much more advanced and

sophisticated system when you get into

an advanced Islamic tradition by this

period 13 14 15 century these people

were studying texts on one of the

sciences of that they were very very

focused on was called Edmund well doc

which is a science that teaches you how

to analyze the meanings of words in

context so it's a contextual analyses of

words so that you can quickly ascertain

what type of word is being used to

remove ambiguity because one of the most

difficult problems with language is

ambiguity and they also had astillero

was a very important science so they had

their own tradition they would teach

Bulava which has an even ban money would

Vidya and it's tiara is part of Bala but

because it's such an important part

which is the science of metaphors

because much of language abroad jitney

one of the great grammarians and

philologists in the Islamic tradition

argued that the vast majority of

language is actually metaphor that when

you begin to analyze language you will

find that what you're dealing with is

metaphors we're using metaphors

all of the time so they would study that

in order to better understand and

comprehend language he he had a very

very popular method I say here at


Hana Dino Rumi and he he had mastered

all of these Sciences at a very high

level and he was also extremely popular

and apparently from the stories because

there are some interesting biographies

that were written very early that have

people that knew him personally but he

was he was a very very unusual boy as a

child and this is always you know one

wonders about these great minds what

they were like when they were children

the the talk that Ken Robinson gave

about the problems of Education a few

years back and he just mentioned about

you know we tend not to think of

Shakespeare as a child but what was he

like when he was in grammar school and

how would the English teacher really

dealt with somebody like that

so I think the same is true it's very

interesting there's some teachers there

students actually surpassed them quite

early on Saturday in tough days Anya is

a good example of somebody who had a

very early age had a massive opening

even though he was actually considered

to be not very bright in in the

classroom which is often the case with

great geniuses is that people think

they're actually stupid and he had a

massive opening and his teacher actually

ended up putting him in the chair to

start teaching the classes so that does

happen but he obviously had an

extraordinary experience by meeting a

teacher who was completely what we would

almost call an antinomian he was a very

unusual wandering itinerant preacher who

had incredible impact and was usually

chased out of places because he had such

a massive impact he was a charismatic

but when Geraldine fell under his spell

he really went had a massive

transformation had incredible spiritual

openings and then from him poured forth

all of this incredible poetry that's

bread all over the world it's been

translated into countless languages and

there's pilgrims that come from Japan

that come from England Australia all

these different places to come visit

this place and I think you'll see we're

going to go in Shaolin visit the the

madrasah where it is the cells are there

they they're hollow was a thousand and

one nights they would do a Halawa the

day they had to do Kidman

before they were actually allowed to

study so they had to go through a period

of spiritual transformation one of the

one of the stipulations was that they

couldn't speak ill of anybody or if they

were treated badly they could never

retaliate they would just have to accept

everything that was done to them and

they had a very rigorous discipline I

think people forget how serious this

early community was about their religion

and we tend to as modern people it's

very difficult for us to imagine the the

type the intensity of practice and the

intensity of dedication and devotion

that these early peoples had in their

religion one of the the one of the

Andorian poets he said Len I was sort of

officially hynden walch to have a place

in related

mailani we have a good example in

Bushido Hindon and in his sister and

face and Layla Layla and Majnun and in

may in Thailand these are these are

famous love stories of the early Arabs

and what he was saying is is that the

reason God puts the Romeo and Juliet's

in the world is as a proof against

anyone that claims to love God that the

intensity of erotic love the intensity

of love between two human beings can be

so great that people actually go mad and

I'll do anything for the beloved and and

so those people are there in the world

as a proof according to that poet

against people who claim to love God if

you say you love Allah but in kuntum to

halawet to be Rooney say if you love a

lot if you have a claim for something at

beg you know - I didn't with Jerry you

know the the proof is on the one making

the claim so if you claim to love Allah

the proof is in following the prophets

Elias and that's the proof so that's the

the the proof of your love and the

Sahaba had complete to marry they were

completely annihilated in the love of

the Prophet slice him to such a degree

that a Bilal or a Delano after many

years of being in Syria came back to

visit Medina and some of the Med Deniz

convinced him to give the Adhan it was

very difficult for him but he decided to

and when he gave the Adnan people heard

the Adhan for the first time from batao

since the time of the Prophet and they

came out their homes just weeping they

were just crying that that's how present

the prophet saw him was in their lives

in my magical deal and they said if the

prophets name was mentioned his face

used to change the color in his faith

would change

they had issue you know real love and so

he went through that intense period and

what he talks about

and muhabba which is I think you'll

study with city hubs in text on even a

show in his he talks about we have to

held up your Mohammed today are clean

and the last one is muhabba the stations

that you adorn yourself with because in

traditionally in that path that you have

what's called Talia and then you have

Talia and then you have tears Leah and

Talia is the emptying out it's what the

in the Christian tradition they called

it Canosa swear you empty out the self

because the self is is full of itself

you know you talk about people's you

know you say he's full of it and himself

that's exactly what it means he's full

of himself one of the things about daddy

I'm Mia a lot of people don't think what

these terms mean you know Indonesia but

one of the things the Egyptians they say

and they don't know what it means but

I'm convinced it's from their own

spiritual tradition if an Egyptian wants

you to say watch out

he says Headley Ballack min if sick you

know it's not how they say watch out can

development if sick but if you actually

look at what it means in arabic it means

empty your mind of your ego

suddenly Ballack min f ck do the Talia

of yourself that's how you watch out if

you because the only thing that gets you

in trouble is your nuts

that's the only thing it's the only

thing that gets you in trouble is your


and so the the Muslims were very serious

about doing work on themselves now

they're serious about doing work on

everybody but themselves they don't want

to do any work on themselves because

there's nothing wrong with them it's

it's America that's what's wrong it's

Israel that's what's wrong

it's Bashar that if we could just get

rid of that guy everything would be

perfect it's everything but where

it all starts that's why and if you look

at our condition that's the whole basis

of it the prophesy lies to them he began

by emptying them out he made them

vessels for the truth but first he had

to empty them out like the famous you

know the martial artists who wanted to

study with the master and he goes and he

and he meets that this master that he's

been trying to get the opportunity to

teach study with them and he says oh and

I studied with master so-and-so

we did this I did Wing Chun and then we

studied with him and I did this system

and then I studied with this I did this

and he's he's telling the mass or all

these people he studied with and all

these things he learned and so when the

tea came he just kept pouring the tea

the master and it until the cup was just

overflowing and and this this man says

well why are you the cups full he said

so he said really you should stop

fooling filling it because it's full so

it can't take anymore

he said no of course not if it's full it

can't take anymore he said well you're


I can't it's the same thing you're full

and and you find this motif in many's

teaching stories about house on a

Saturday when he went to meet Buddha son

who's been mushishi and here's a man who

went from Morocco he was a great scholar

studying Halloween and then he went to

Tunis he studied he went the east and he

was looking for a spiritual master when

he got to Iraq one of the people of Iraq

told him he said the man you're looking

for is in Morocco so he went all the way

from Morocco to Iraq and the Iraqi man

said no you're looking for William Sound

even mushishi

so he went back and he went up the

mountain for anybody that's visited that

part it's it's near top wan he went up

the mountain to where this great sage

was living and he when he first met him


in the close of the anima he had all

these beautiful janaba and and she said

after cells you know did you do whole so

and he said yes he said yes I said you

didn't do so he goes back he does also

again he comes back he said after cells

you know he said yes he said no you

didn't go back so he goes back and then

on the third time he you know got the


zombies doesn't mean what it what he so

he took the clothes of his servant and

he put them on he gave a sermon his

clothes and then he came he said now

you're ready to come you know you have

to strip away if you and and this is you

know the people don't want to do this

anymore we're like you know gel added

you know Rumi tells a story about the

barber you know that they used to do

tattoos so you go to the barber you get

your hair cut you get a tattoo like now

in America and so he goes to the barber

and he tells him I want a tattoo he said

well what do you want he said I want a

lion you know people see people wonder

why everybody's getting tattoos now

tattoos are about the ego you know

Descartes said I think therefore I am

now they say I think therefore I am that

that it's a way of letting people know

I'm I'm different I'm special I've got

this butterfly on my back you don't have

one of those right and and then they get

more and more and they can't stop

because it's not working you know you

just keep trying to make it work so he

wants a lion because he wants to feel

like a lion so put a lion on my back and

so the the tattoo artists he says all

right so he starts with his needling oh

what's that you know he said that that's

that's the tail he's only making a line

without a tail

okay so then he starts again oh oh

what's that he said that's the ear he's

a nerd we'll make a line without ears

okay and then he starts again oh what's

that he said that's the main no no make

it a line without of main and these does

it again

what's that it's the stomach he's in her

I don't want to stomach on the line he

said listen even God didn't make a lion

like this actually I can't do anything

for you and Rumi says why he's telling

the story is that this is people on the

spiritual path

he says they want they want without any

work they don't want the pain of

sacrifice of working date they want the

finished product just there for

everybody to see but they don't want to

do any of the work to get there so

historically you know Muslims this I

think what we tend to forget about our

religion is this religion is actually

about getting close to allah subhan

allah tala that that's the point of it

it's literally to get close to Allah and

not only to get close to a lot but to

experience the divine in our lives to

actually experience the presence of the

divine that we're we're in a world that

has angelic beings demonic beings and we

share this space there's angels that

come with believers and there shall

thing that come with with the people of

found us and misdeeds so drawing near to

Allah they're they're basically two

paths you know to getting close to allah

subhanho wa taala

one of them is the path of salvation

which is for common people that's the

path of just the man who came to the

Prophet he said Yasuo Locke if I pray

five times a day if I pay my zakat

if I fast Ramadan if I make the Hajj

will I enter paradise and the prophets

Allah said I'm said yes and there's a

revised said I avoid the Haram is the

prophet said you'll enter paradise and

then he said then

well lied that's all I'm gonna do and he

left and the Prophet said cut off La

Rochelle and in re y he used the

diminutive the little man Maharaja in

sadoc he'll have success if he's

truthful but that is the bare minimum

that's salvation that's somebody who's

getting close to a lot with the bare

minimum those are the people that just

do the bare minimum that they have to do

to get the Paycheck you know there's

jobs that you have and if you just do

the bare minimum you'll get the paycheck

if you do less than that they fire you

right but there's people that's all

they'll do just the bearment and then

there's people that they want promotion

they want to get close to the boss they

want him to like them they want this

this is the way the dunya works though

and that's the path of purification of

just kiya and sanctification and and

getting close to Allah of tuk DS of

drawing near to Allah through extra acts

these are the no acid so you have the

Farah up and then you have the no offal

the more no after you do the closer you

get to Allah but it's predicated on the

floral so if you're not doing the firaon

and then you're wasting your time doing

the northen and one of the signs

according to the people of that science

one of the signs of following hawa of

following your own desires is that you

prefer no afield over for Eyal so there

will be people that it'll stay up all

night and then they'll sleep through

Federer right really there's people that

do that they'll like do dhikr late into

the night that they have go to a mullet

or do something and then they sleep

through Federer

these are people that still be so he


that's the way it briefs fools people

and tricks people

so the the the the path of both

salvation and this other way the height

this higher way of really trying to draw

draw near to Allah and and through

serving his own MA

serving his creation sacrificing both of

these are predicated on knowledge the

one that is the way of just the for I

help and doing the bare minimum you have

to have the bare minimum of knowledge

which is called 14 the other way is the

way you have to have the far I mean but

then you also do the key fire you do

extra and our tradition because of the

sophistication and the problems that are

attendant with revelation and in a

tradition emerged in the Islamic ethos

and the tradition emerged in order to

protect revelation from misunderstanding

the early companions Allah blessed those

people with a level of knowledge and

understanding that's unparalleled in our

tradition the first community they they

if you study the history they were

amazing brilliant people but if you look

at the Sahaba there are only a handful

of Sahaba that gave fatwa there called

the MOOC theorem there's only a handful

of Sahaba they gave Fatah fatwa people

like Al Merriman hapa a demon of your

party even a mr. rude or de la Abu

Huraira is not from the MOOC 13 a fatwa

even though he gave had many hadith

narrations he didn't give a lot of

thought to a fact he gave a moderate

amount the coordinated one rewire but

one of the things about the early

community is that they were loath to

give fatwa so if you went to ask one of

the Sahaba

a question they used to say go out


he knows better than me and then they

would go to him

Imam no he writes this in his book on

fatwa and then they would say go to

so-and-so go to so-and-so to go and and

it would go until it came back to the

original person now you have people that

are they jumped to answer and very quick

to give an opinion in my Maddox

tradition they called the fatwa Nazz

allah which means mo Seba and imam malik

if he was asked a question in FIP used

to say in LA he what in na la harad your

own which is what you say when you get

it have a tribulation because basically

a fatwa is a response of a scholar who's

trained and in that response he is

saying it is my belief that this is what

God wants you to do in this situation

that that's essentially what a fast way

is you're saying it's my belief that

this is what God would want you to do

this situation now you get another

person who can give a different fatwa

he'll say it's my belief this is what

God wants you to say and in many many

situations you can have different views

because one God is vast and two

understandings differ so the prophets

lies that I'm actually taught us that

there can be two correct opinions and

sigh and Behati the famous one that the

early scholars use is the one of praying

ah sir the prophesy Asim said told them

not to pray ah sir until they got too

many of Coretta and the group went when

a certain came half of them said it's

time to pray and the other half said no

the Prophet said don't pray until we get

there they said oh he didn't mean that

he meant get there before us are and the

other group said no no he meant that

that we should pray when we get there

and and we shouldn't pray also until we

get there

so they split so one group raid answer

before they got there and the second

group waited they delayed their prayer

when they got there they told the

Prophet what happened he didn't say

you're correct and you're wrong he just

left it at that

they were both correct they both made in

HD HOD there was initially Heidi's

situation and that was it now you have

people that believe there's only one way

in Islam and it just so happens to be

their way but you really we have this

problem that there's only one way in

Islam and it's my understanding the

reason that this happens well not avoid

them in bed Muhammad and Bucky and

Boehner home that they didn't start

differing until knowledge came to them

and they became arrogant with their

knowledge Fakhruddin or Aziza says about

that Buffy and Boehner home he says

about the home and about forgotten how

cool Maria wanted a status Sheikh he

said that it's one group saying oh I'm

right and you're wrong you don't you

don't have anything so knowledge can be

a source of conflict and this is why

Imam al-ghazali in in his the first book

he'd have an in of the yeah he lays the

foundations for a correct understanding

of knowledge what is knowledge what is

it a lot of people don't know what

knowledge is they don't understand the

nature of knowledge that there are

knowledge that are precise and then

there are imprecise knowledge as there

are knowledge that have a lot of

ambiguities in them one of the Aristotle

the great Greek philosopher he said that

it's the mark of an educated mind to

demand precision only to the degree with

which that knowledge allows it so in

mathematics you can get a very precise

answer but in in other Sciences that

answer might not be precise it's just

ambiguous by the very nature of the

subject and one of the greatest problems

with language and the reason why the

modern world loves mathematics so much

and is loath to to really explore

language in the ways that it did in the

past one of the reasons for that is the

ambiguities of language the modern world

doesn't like ambiguities and so

people have lost the sciences that

enable them to communicate with the

least amount of ambiguity because you

have to exhaust language studies and

that's why the Muslims did this and one

of these sciences that this was

predicated on was the science of what

they called mump and and its sister

science was called edible bath when Mona

vara in the West these are called logic

and dialectic logic and dialectic and

from these Sciences and there are

ancillary sciences that go with this

like in mid-water is one of them bailout

a-- is another because but i was

important these became the foundation of

islamic studies in the muslim world

everywhere you went they became the

foundation and all of our scholars right

from this perspective you cannot

understand any of the major works of

Islamic scholarship without

understanding these foundational

sciences that they were working with and

so what I thought I'd do tonight just as

an introduction is read from the opening

of a book which to me it's one of the

most important books in our tradition

because it's the foundation of what's

known as the science of to solve and

increasingly it's become clear to me

that one of the great calamities of the

modern Islamic situation is an idea

somehow that to solve is extraneous to

Islam that it's not part of Islam that

the reality of it is is that it is it's

a central core teaching of Islam which

does not mean that there are not a lot

of problems inherent in to solve just

like there are problems that are

inherent in fifth you have Fahad that go


you have Mata kalamoon that go astray

you also have the so we fed that go

astray so there's just like any other

group and in fact they're more

susceptible because of the nature of

their science to going astray but one of

the things that modern Muslims have done

is that they've thrown the baby out with

the bathwater to use a English idiom in

in in trying to purify our tradition

from all of these innovations and all of

these problems that came into it they've

they completely dismissed this science

and so this book was written by C

deokman's a rope the Great North African

scholar who was from fast

he died in Misurata in Libya but he

wrote a book called Hawaii to solve and

in this book what he wanted to do

because he was a no sulie scholar and

this is called toxiel which is to give

the foundations of something toxiel is

very important in our tradition because

a nanaka lee right

shahe Mardan who dared le imam abdul

tena EG he says that the one

transmitting something has to prove that

it's sound but the one claiming

something has to give his his Delisle

for it

so if you say a Paula Ebben a Masood K

to a kata you you have to prove that

even mr. rude really did say that that's

part of our tradition

so the knockin the one transmitting has

to prove the soundness of his

transmission but the Madani the one

claiming something who's just saying

here's the foundation of this that or

the other he has to give his Delisle to

show why so if you had-even is Tim

bought like where did you get that idea

from well I'm deriving it from the fact

of this this and this and then you make

your argument and these arguments are

done through reasoning and this is why

reasoning is foundational to the human


one of the teachers in Turkey he was a

he was a logician they called a month

opee you know a lot a legit

and he had a student and he taught him

logic and when he finished all these

class because logic is it's not that


it has abstraction x' that are sometimes

a little complex to grasp but basically

all of you are logicians everybody in

here is a logician unless you're

McAuliffe ugly and you know like

somebody who's just handicapped

intellectually or Majnoon which is

possible also but if you if you are a

sane human being then you are always

reasoning your your eyes are doing it

well or you're doing it poorly but you

are definitely reasoning the heart has

reasons that the head has no knowledge

of but if you fall in love you get

married people say love is irrational

Stephanie got some irrational components

but there's a reason why you get married

there's a reason why most people love

for reasons they fall in love with their

beauty their goodness in fact they say

about the prophets lies to them that the

reason why you learned the Shema hill is

because attraction to the beautiful

qualities of a person is one of the

reasons that love is cultivated so just

reading about him he was very beautiful

he was a very physically a very

beautiful person he was the most

beautiful of men and he was everything

was was was balanced with the Prophet he

had beautiful hair

he had very wavy black hair it wasn't

curly it wasn't straight because

everything about him is balanced so even

his hair was balanced wasn't straight

and it wasn't curly the extremes those

are two extremes of hair you have curly

hair yep straight hair his was right in

the middle of those two extremes he had

wavy hair parted in the middle

it went sometimes to the bottom of the

earlobe sometimes to his shoulders he

had a very very beautiful complexion

they said it was like the moon

and I asked one of my teachers we were

watching a Harvest Moon rise and it was

that beautiful color that's not white

it's off-white it's like a wheat color

and I said is that the color they meant

he said that's the color they meant it's

not because you could let me put um ha

he was not pasty white like the moon

when it's right up on the sky

no he had a reddish tint to his

complexion he had beautiful eyes he had

very very white his whites what they

call ophthalmologists in America called

happy eyes when the yeah very white

he had very very white that the whites

of his eyes were very white and then he

had very striking dark eyes that were

penetrating he had a beautiful aquiline

nose which is an aristocratic nose in in

many many cultures an aquiline nose was

seen as a beautiful nose and one of the

reasons that it's called aquiline is

because it's it's apana in arabic but in

in in english they call aquiline because

it's like the Aquila the eagle an eagle

has a very beautiful I once saw an eagle

perched on a fence outside of my house

and I just watched it for a little while

and I just I realized the eagle

completely is aware that it's an eagle

if you observe an eagle even for a short

amount of time you will see that an

eagle is so aware that it is superior to

every other bird and the way it just it

just looks around like I am Not Afraid

of anybody or anything it's just got

this amazing and so the Arabs love

Eagles and they name their children

after them they're very very noble birds

but they have these beautiful aqua line

beak and the Prophet SAW I said I'm had

a beautiful

forehead and he had very strong he had

broad shoulders is very strong and he

had beautiful he had a very small light

hair that went down and but he wasn't

hairy at all he was his body was very

his skin was did he did not have a lot

of body hair but he had very slight

hair on his on his chest that went down

to his navel very strong legs he had

strong hands he walked in a very

distinct way those are all qualities

that if you studied them you it actually

makes you want to see him you want I

want to see that I want to experience

that and then they described how he

spoke and the mellifluous nature of his

speech it was when people listened to

him they were enraptured and when he

spoke it was like birds perched on their

heads Coliseum FAO it was as if there

were birds perched on their heads they

were just so intent to hear what he had

to say but the reason that they

described that is because that's one of

the reasons that you love a person for

physical beauty and then you love them

also for their character and that's

another reason but the main reason that

people love is because of sin when

people do good to you and that's why I

lost behind with Diana

he's the moissan I mean he's constantly

doing good to us and that should

engender love in you and so love has

reasons there are reasons why we love

it's a rational thing as well and so

anyway this Turkish logician taught this

this man logic which is basically three

things it's it's it's understanding is

the first operation of the mind basic

understanding what they call a what they

call a a solar savage it's a simple

apprehension just understanding

something what it is glass of water and

then the second act of the mind is is

judgment custody or the proposition

making a statement either negating or

asserting something about something so

it needs a subject that a predicate the

mold or and the Mamun and then the last

operation of the mind is PS or reasoning

going from what's known to what's

unknown men and monomi in an image fool

and so he taught him these things and

then he said

I want you to go into the marketplace

spend the day in the marketplace and

come back so he went spent the day in

the mark he finished his cuz he's gonna

give me Jazza and month up right so he

went to the marketplace spent the day in

the marketplace he came back he said how

was your day

said I did what you told me I was in the

marketplace all day he said did you

notice anything said no he said you're

not ready so we need to do this again so

they studied logic second course did it

all understanding judgment reasoning

finished his course so he said to him I

want you to go and spend the day in the

marketplace okay here he goes spends the

day in the marketplace comes back he

said how was your day in the marketplace

all day just like you told me nothing he

said we have to do this again did the

course in logic again went through the

three operations of the mind when he

finished it he said listen I want you to

go the marketplace spend the day in the

marketplace come back he goes spends the

day in the marketplace comes back he

said how was your day he said oh my god

I couldn't believe it they're all

practicing logic cuz that's what that's

what it is the whole world is people

reasoning making understanding basic

things asserting things or negating

things and then making arguments that's

what's going on everywhere you look

that's what's going on come in there's a

discount today all right there's a

discount today so what's going on in the

mind Oh

if I buy today I'm gonna save money

therefore I should buy today right it's

logic the whole thing is predicated on

reasoning and that's what the student

finally got that it

happening all around you and that's one

of the really interesting things about

studying logic is that you begin to

refine that process and are better able

to understand what's being said to you

and better able to communicate what you

want to say to others so I just want to

show you this is the book by CDI module

called co-editor solve and I'm gonna

read to collide and talk about them

quickly and then we're done

the first guy that he says at Kurama

fish a feral tesora mejia t he was Aida

Tuhoe mafia that he be sure and any and

mocked a seaman or battalion

lyosha aleyhi via ferrata Mahakali

rotten wat abullah siren watashi de

Falla symmetry mode Erica and unholy

fihi lemon be he with a hobby then

alayhi wa ma and he met that he value of

him so he says that clam before we can

talk about it

thing in other words before we can do

make judgments about things we have to

understand what the nature of that thing



so I'll hook moron - am fahren Antasari

this is a Qaeda before you can make a

judgement about a thing you have to

grasp what that

thing is so this is what he's saying

he's saying that akadama fish a 402 so

woody Mejia te it is a branch of

comprehending it's s

since well fati dead t he and and

comprehending what its benefit is be

sure Auden the nyan so this occurs in

the mind


tessa been OBD Heon it either occurs

discursively through reflection through

being taught or it's intuitive you just

grasp it immediately so you have

immediate knowledge and then you have

mediated knowledge so immediate

knowledge is - is greater

than one nobody needs to teach you that

a child will understand that but that

one that 2.5 percent in Socata is 140th

that's market Esav that you have to

understand because you need to

understand what fractions are you need

to understand what decimals are and you

need to understand the relationship

between the two so that's a different

type so those are the two types so he's

saying that before we can speak about

something we have to grasp what its

essence is and what his benefit is

through this mentation through this

mental ratiocination would be a big word

for it in the West and then he says in


lyosha via ferrata Mahakali these are

all logical concepts so this is called

extension in logic so the a fraud that

this is all those things that it extends

to because you have what's called

comprehension and extension

all right the comprehension is is the

the tussle water or the understanding of

it what it is and then the lima sadoc

and then the the Limassol dock is what

it applies to

right what would it would it apply so

all the things that it applies to an and

B with the Hobley then an e so in order

for you to for it to be understood

through it and also the encouragement to

know its fatty dad to know its benefit

will encourage you to study it what a

manly mad daddy he

and to to be able to articulate its

subject matter and so you should

understand this so here's the beginning

of a book on to solve which is all based

on month up like you cannot understand

this if you haven't studied month up

so here's a this is our tradition if you

read tafseer if you read

peda if you read any of the major

sciences of Islam especially also

landfill you will find that they're all

relying on the the readers understanding

of these most thought a hat and not just

these but several other sciences

especially when you get into the later

scholastic tradition by the time you get

to somebody like an imam

about jewelry he's he's got Binaca going

he's got mom Tucker going he's got

grammar going he's got what that going

it's it's

monster hunter hadith tafseer Osuna

happy de felt suffer hikmah all of these


as well-versed in and this is how he's

teaching so then he says mariya to share

happy cut to who

the essence of something is its reality

the essence of a thing is its reality to

understand the essence is to understand

the reality right well how can you cut

two who madhulata Leahy Joomla Tahoe and

its reality is what it it's some

summarily means what it means by

summation what it can be summed up into

with charity for that it could be had

and the definition of that is through a

head which is a term in Latin terminus

means the end of something so a term is

is the end of something in Arabic had is

the end of something had douche a part

of a whole our hero

so the the had is the end of something

and so this is Watchmen that's that is

the most comprehensive is a definition

but then you have what's called a rossum

which in Western logic is called a

descriptions so something and and when

we get into I'm just giving you this is

just a you know it's like at the

restaurant when they give you a sample

so don't we're gonna go into this in

detail over the course of the next

couple of weeks inshallah so don't worry

about not getting any of this right now

when when you get a hand or Rustom you

need to know what are called the five

predicate predicate bulls which are the

L father Kamsa right so you have gins

the genus you have the north the species

you have the hosta the diferencia and

then you have the the the the outer

which is like the its you have the

propria is the and then you have the

fossil sorry the fossil which is the

differentiate the hasta which is the

probiem or the property and they have

the arab and some call the those two

types of accidents the adult eliza moon

and then I don't own out of them so

those five things are going to enable

you to give the head the definition or

the description the HUD is is

is the genus and the difference so the

genus is what you can say about a lot of

things the hafsa is what's specific to

that one thing so with a human being

what's our definition traditionally in

in in logic what do they call the human

being what's that

Hyeon not the Conan which in Arabic

means the speaking animal but they

really mean the rational animal in the

West we call it a rational animal so our

genus is rational this is different from

biology because you know they talk about

genus and species so yeah those are

biological terms this is logical terms

there are two different Sciences so

don't get them confused

the GE I mean they're they're related

but they're used very specifically in

these Sciences for different for things

that they mean in that science so that

the the genus is the general and then

the the fossil is the difference so with

the human being we're an animal but many

types of animals so what makes us unique

what's the Fussel what differentiates us

from other animals rationality this is

the definition so this is a logical

definition everything can be defined in

this way and this is the foundation of

defining things because when we speak in

language we want to know what a solid

fit is right what is also load v very

often it's in the thing itself all

Siouxland fit if you understand those

two words then you'll understand what

the definition of all Sunan fit is and

these are called tatty feds right so

this is this is how this works and so he

says well what old ah the the rasam the

description is clear oh tafseer or it

can explain something or tembu leave a

knee or sorta a famiiy and it helps you

understand it quickly

well put the sole see now all of this

was to introduce the definition of

tussle wolf

all of this so he's giving you now he's

told you before we can talk about

something we have to define it

what's its definition it's it's reality

what is the reality of Tessa Wolfe

well the tasawwuf Oh

LaRue Seema well for Serie B will do him

Tessa wolf has been defined it's been

described and it's been explained in

many many different ways tab local now

ll feign it will reach up to about 2000

different definitions merger aku Neha is

sitteth ilaha illa-llah Tana all of

those definitions go back to one

fundamental meaning sincerity in your

God directedness it's sincerity in your

inner direction towards your Lord that's

the definition what in the mahir will do

and fie he will honor so what does that

mean what it means is the genus of Toso

wolf is if loss that's the genus it's

sincerity but the difference because you

can be sincere as a doctor you're

sincere like you say he's a very sincere

doctor just means he doesn't cheat you

he's doing what should be done right so

that's the genus sincerity applies to

many many different things he's a

sincere student he's a sincere son we

can apply that to me but what is the


what's the Fussell it's sincerity in

your directedness towards God in those

things that apply

to your Lord so you are sincere in your

ebody you're sincere in your more I'm

glad for the sake of Allah subhana WA

Ta'ala that's that's all and that's why

you can be a Sufi and and and be like

have nothing to do with that word

there's people in in places that they

might even not even like to solve then

what I mean they do with it but they

have sits back toward you to a loss of a

note down and in that way they have to

solve so the name is just a name what's

the reality of the name if you're stuck

on the name you're a nominalist the name

is just a name whether you call it a

soul Fortis kia ora floss or Mahara

Pajaro to nufs right whatever you call

it it doesn't matter those are names the

Muslims for centuries called it - so

wolf there's no reason to abandon that

name really there's no reason there's

people that have tried to get rid of it

but there's no reason to abandon it once

you clarify what it is and the early the

earliest Sufis Imam al Junaid said no

one can speak about this matter that

hasn't mastered the book and the Sunna

that's what Imam Junaid said a moment to

study said I hear things about this

matter but I always go to to just

witnesses to hear their testimony the

book and the Sunna and this is why

Caesar Rock says the Sufi has to submit

to the FUP II and the doesn't

have to submit to the Sufi if you're

tasawwuf is not in accord and not some

narrow-minded provincial Fuffy who only

has one way of doing thing no to the

broad based interpretive tradition of

the folk aha which includes the

methodology of the great Imams of this

Ummah so there's Imams that say that you

can do the Mawlid and that's the

majority of the laters

there's really moms that say no don't do

that that's fine it's a real F issue if

you don't want to do it that's fine but

if you do do it it has to be free of

things that are moon cut out but to say

it in and of itself is a moon car no

because higher to my yoga Rehema crew

arrived to my yoga the worse that can be

said about it is that it's macro

according to the Aruna map but to say

that it's prohibited or something like

that and that's an extreme position that

very few scholars ever took so anyway

that that's my introduction so in

childhood tomorrow I'm going to start

with the Tenma body which our foundation

on our tradition what are called the my

body and I shot in the could in the my

body could defendant Azshara and had the

one more daughter in math Amara father

who nice for tomorrow are there or

dismissed and dad or hookman sharing

massage in mobile doable Bartok tefa

moment Daryl Jimmy has a share of a Imam

of Seban one of the great 18th century

scholars versified the Tenma body in

that it's in your book and then I

versified it for you in English if you

want to memorize it in English so those

are the 10 my body I'm gonna do those

tomorrow and shawl and that's usually

that was the introduction to any Islamic

science always began with this it begins

from an early period they started doing

this and the reason for it was to give

the student a comprehensive view of the

subject before you went into it it's

like seeing the force before the trees

which helps just to see the whole thing

before you go in and say okay that's a

oak and that's the elm tree and that's

an acacia tree and just to understand

what a forest is and so the subject is

is part of that and the name and it's

sources where it comes from it's also

its ranking one of the things that we

fail to do now in in Western education

we don't rank knowledge anymore so

nobody knows what's more important I

mean if you go if you look at the if you

go to any college most of you have been

to college some of you are in college

some of you are gonna be going to

college next year or something if you go

to college they have these catalogs they

begin with astronomy and they end with


this is A to Z there's no ranking they

don't tell you what you should take

what's important this is more important

than the other Muslims always rank their

sciences it's called the father who or

October two who shot off a whole what's

the virtue of the science and the shot

off is metallic but mold war it's what

it what a subject matter so if the

subject matter is God it's a very high

science if the subject matters dunya

it's the lower science if the subject

matter is language it's a very high

science because it's a it's a tool to

understand God so these are the rankings

hierarchical nature of science because

we believe in Marathi Marathi better

unum there are degrees of knowledge

Marathi Buju there are degrees of

existence we have four levels of


you know there's degrees in our

tradition of existence then you have

metaphysical you have other realms as

well the morgue the medical the java

route so anyway questions answers


any questions I've been teaching for

about 10 years and obviously before that

I was a student and I'm worried that

modern education has deconstructed our

reasoning skills and will if if it has

in your opinion do you think I'll need

13 years to reconstruct them all so yeah

I mean you know the modern world is it's

in a mess I think all of us are pretty

aware of that and that's not to say that

the pre-modern will wasn't either in

some ways there's a lot of good and and

in some ways this is one of the better

times that people have been living so

I'm not completely dismissive of the

modern world but there are there are

things about the educational system in

the past that were very problematic and

but there are things with the modern

system of Education that are also very

problematic there are still places where

you can get a reasonably good education

I would say but in terms of those basic

fundamental skills that are very

important to grasp and should really be

learned at a relatively early age in the

West they were grammar and logic and

rhetoric and then also the skills of

numbers so these are the two types of

literacy what we call literacy with

language and then numeracy or literacy

with numbers and these are the two ways

that human beings think we think

qualitatively which is linked

linguistically through language and then

we think think quantitatively through

number so and when we get into the

categories which are part of the

tradition of logic there are ten

categories and after substance you know

the two categories that immediately

follow that are quantity and quality

come and cave in Arabic and so we

there's a book by a French philosopher

the turn of the century that was written

the reign of quantity and a lot of

people noticed this about the modern

world that it was a world of quantity

and quality was being taken out of the

world not completely and not entirely

but quality is much less important to

the people today than it ever has been

the idea of mastery is is we have

mastery in a few things I think in music

there's still a commitment to mastery in

certain sports there's a commitment to

high levels of mastery but the idea of

mastering the mind the idea mastering

the soul the idea of mastering Arts and

Crafts becoming great craftsmen becoming

really masters of these things it's very

very unusual in the modern world to meet

people that are really committed to

mastery of anything and obviously the

highest thing is to master yourself and

that is very difficult I'm in Zurich

said it's easier to move a mountain with

your fingernails than it is to actually

transform your nature so it's but it is

possible an imam al-ghazali argued that

anybody who claims that you cannot

change nature is a liar and he said you

can you can take a dog and train a dog

and he's saying what you can't you can't

take a human being that has rational

nature and not transform it you can take

a dog that has you know all over the

place and teach it to do very relatively

sophisticated tricks and teach it to sit

and what you can't discipline the self

you can a dog you can discipline but

your own self you can't teach it to stop

don't do that it's not good for you you

know this is incontinence which is a

beautiful word in in in in the 19th

century in America and there was a moral

term it wasn't a medical term

and and countenance is is the idea of

restraint self-restraint incontinence is

a crazier or the lack of self-restraint

now it's been reduced to incontinent to

stool and urine this is this what's been

reduced to people that can't control

their most basic bodily functions are

called incontinent but in reality you

should be able to control your your

nature and and this takes time it takes

practice and it takes skill but the

modern world wants to strip that away so

certainly learning these skills are very

important in in the in the modern world

logic has been reduced to what's called

material logic and we'll get into that

in the third lecture we'll get into

material logic you have formal logic a

material logic material logic one aspect

of material logic is called the

fallacies which are called the sub sabha

or the Mahalo pot the Mohana thoughts

are fallacies of reasoning so the

content of your logic and and we were

very susceptible to them but politicians

are used them all the time and we're

very susceptible because the mind is

susceptible to hasty generalizations I'm

gonna give you an example if you look on

if you watched CNN before coming to

Turkey you probably would have canceled

your trip because they made it appear

that this whole country was in

revolution and when you got here in

Istanbul you're there and it's it's very

peaceful and it's so ludicrous for

people in New York don't go to Turkey

you know it's a dangerous place you know

they're all they've gone crazy you know

meanwhile there's people getting mugged

all over the place in Central Park right

I mean this is so much safe earth and

New York and but you know people are

afraid to come to Turkey because they

watch the news and the news is

constantly using fallacies and sometimes

it's just pure deceit but you know I

mean it they said for instance how many

people heard that they were gonna tear

down all the trees to build a mall how

many people heard that okay now look at

that that was a complete lie they

weren't going to tear down that they

were actually gonna remove some trees

around the edge of the park to restore

the fort that had been torn down

it was an ottoman military base and they

were gonna make a museum they were

building a mall right so it was this

kind of oh this massive you know this

insane liberal capitalism gone mad

turkeys on steroids they're gonna turn

everything into malls

no they were gonna preserve the trees

make a museum and the so-called mall was

actually cafes around the area for

people to enjoy the place but it's a

very very secular part of Istanbul and

some of the people there the majority of

pubs in Istanbul are in that area and

because they put a 10:00 p.m.

limit on sale of alcohol which is the

case in many states in America right

they have these laws and you have many

many cities in the United States where

you can't sell alcohol after so and then

you have dry days it wasn't that long

ago before we had dry States right so

this whole idea that you know oh that no

you can't do that if if they see fit to

if they if they're having problems with

with disorderly contact because of the

sale of alcohol then that's part of what

public order is you have to succumb to

the public order but if you looked at it

you know these these were these are

tactics people can't think clearly

anymore they showed a picture of a

million and a half people and CNN said

oh this was a protest again

the president no is actually a protest

for the president a demonstration for

the president and then CNN retracted

that a little later instead of whoops we

made a mistake that was actually a pro

presidential you know so the people

opposed to were a few hundred people

that they gave nine hours of

unprecedented live coverage on CNN

International I mean where were they

when Iceland was in a rebellion against

the the the Parliament because the banks

they weren't going to pay the banks

where were they how many people got to

see all the Greek rebellions and the

abuse that the Greek protesters took

from I mean you know you need the tools

of thinking in the modern world because

you're up against a massive propaganda

machine and it's it's a propaganda

machine that is is not so much a

conspiracy but it's just they all think

the same way they look at things the

same way and so Turkey because turkey is

a country that has a very very troubling

history for the West Turkey was once the

center of one of the most powerful

dynasties in human history and had an

empire that was unprecedented and lasted

for a very long time

and there are people that there there's

a little bit of schizophrenia in the

country they were deeply traumatized

I mean imagine imagine in United States

or in Canada

imagine Obama announces we have decided

that starting tomorrow all of English

will be written in the pinyin Chinese

script because we realize that China is

a rising power and we want to prepare

our young people early so that they'll

be able to read Chinese

so tomorrow all the textbooks are going

to be published in Chinese script it's

still English don't worry you're not

gonna be saying new-home ah you'll still

say how are you but it's gonna be


the Chinese write their script I mean

imagine the trauma that that would cause

in a nation and that's what was done


they went from there Arabic ottoman

script to Latin based script overnight

and then imagine the trauma to the Kurds

of prohibiting them from speaking their

language this is what happened to the

Native Americans they were prohibited to

speak their native languages in the

United States yes prohibited to speak

their native languages on the

reservations right imagine that and here

for the first time now they've they're

they're allowing them to teach their

language to teach this is what they've

done so this so-called fascist Turkish

government that's being presented to

Western people is is removing a lot of

the the darkness that had descended upon

the people from before but people are

very worried you know there's people

that are secular and they think oh these

are the Muslims taking over well they're

Muslim people but they're committed to a

secular state right and and and the idea

that Islam and secularity are mutually

exclusive is false because the vast

majority of Islamic history had

relatively secular states they they

weren't really Islamic states that the

whole concept of an Islamic state is a

fantasy in in the in the minds of a lot

of the modern Islamists but if you

actually study Muslim history that you

will find yes Islam was the state

religion but the states functioned just

like a secular state functions because

religion actually has very little to do

with the running of a state building

roads has nothing to do with what men

have you follow you know that's a Hanafy

road no that's a meth head right the

meth habit means road in Arabic but meth

head is a school is a metaphor taken

from the real meth head which is a road

you know a road is you can build it from

stone you can build it from asphalt you

can build it

concrete and that's just what you want

is honesty you want vetting you want

transparency those are secular ideals as

well right

a post office is not an Islamic concept

right the you don't need we need Islamic

stamps yeah you can have put okay put

the head of like Muslims behead lay like

a lot on their coins okay in America

they have kind of laid I had a lot to

work in out of law that's that's okay

I'm America's a secular state it still

has TOEIC in out of law right so that's

okay you can have in god we trust' it

smells you can be secular and still

trust in God it's okay municipalities

are not you know the the water doesn't I

need a henna fee you know they called

henna fiha in Arabic I need a Hennessy

anivia this is a monarchy henna via no

you don't need you just need a henna

fear you just need a water right tap

that works and that's municipalities and

all you want is some honest guy in there

if he's a secularist who's honest fine

if he's a Muslim who's honest fine as

long as the water gets there it's been

purified it's not gonna make you sick

right seriously think about it the vast

majority of government just does not

relate to religion it just relates to

common decency and that's why you can

live in I mean if Muslims were were

literally taken from like eighth century

Syria or Palestine and dropped into

Norway they would think that you know it

was like the caliphate of omar bin abdul

aziz like there's so much social justice

they would be amazed at how much social

justice are in these scandinavian

countries their secular countries so

this whole idea which in manoa you have

to have had punishment you know this is

what so islam is reduced to there's four

agreed upon had punishments 13 there's


about you no sir even apostasy laws all

these things they're all debated

there's nothing fixed in stone and then

the the prophets lies centum he said it

throne who did mr. Patton avoid

implementing penal punishments as much

as you're able to maybe no we want let's

get these hands cut off you know I mean

if you had if you want some added had

punishment for theft you you couldn't

shake hands anymore you wouldn't be able

to shake hands everybody'd be like you

know nice to meet you

from from the from the president all the

way down to the street sweeper so you

know anyway that's a very long question

so would you recommend a book for

beginners to read on logic well that's

what we're doing it's a beginning book

on logic a Mary and Joseph book is very

good for and and it helps if English is

your first language it definitely helps

to study logic in in English before you

do it in Arabic my own personal

experience I read it in Arabic it was

very difficult for me initially and

after I studied in English I studied it

several years ago using Aristotle's tax

with my father and and after that it

when I went back to the Arabic it was

just very much easier to do so and

there's there's good but it's important

to note that this is traditional logic

it's not symbolic logic which is very

different symbolic logic is a type of

mathematical logic that it's useful for

certain things but for reasoning in

terms of language it's not very it's not

useful at all because of certain

problems that it has

so alhamdulillah subhana Columbia new

calendar in Atlanta southward to Hui

Lake I just want to also for the people

that are online just welcome you for

being part of this and everybody we I

really hope in shallow you have a

wonderful experience your time in Turkey

there they've been incredibly hospitable

it's a beautiful people they're good

people and there are all types of people

there's and the whole spectrum is here

in Turkey but there's still very decent

people whether they're secular is or

committed to Islam I think you'll oh by

and large find they're very very lot of

just human decency that's been my

experience I've been in Turkey now

several times and spent you know periods

close to a month a couple of those times

and that's been my experience with the

people from the top all the way down to

you know the simple people and they and

it's a great tradition they have a great

tradition here and and they're also I

think one of the things that I really

liked about Turkey is they still have an

aesthetic sense that a lot of Muslim

countries of law so they they tend to

really beauty is still very much part of

their culture and they have beautiful

parks they have beautiful a lot of

beautiful architecture still Istanbul is

arguably I think the most beautiful city

aesthetically outside of Medina because

I'm not going to say anything is more

beautiful than Medina I mean now Medina

is the mosque alone and it's a very

beautiful mosque it's the most beautiful

mosque in the world and so but after

Medina I would definitely say I mean I

was in Istanbul and I said to this

Turkish man he told me he'd studied in

San Francisco I said oh that's all

that's re-stamped that's already stem

bull and he was like

I said you know the bay it's got water

and hills and hey just no no yet no and

also make dua for the organizers they've

worked really hard dr. Asha and her team

really sincere group of people worked

very hard to make all this happen so

inshallah may Allah make it a blessed

time for you a kind of learning and

opening and my advice to you is you know

don't turn on the TV try to avoid you

know just unplug for a little while you

know you're all plugged in it's good to

unplug for a while and and just try to

focus on your studies as much as


we didn't plan having a mall next to so

my advice don't go into the mall dr.

yang is coming tonight so we

traditionally we always had exercise

component in the retina and then Joseph

Alea Hama who who used to do the do

member Joseph yeah he in New Mexico and

things used to do the Tai Chi and the

Kung Fu and he died so after that we

just didn't do it but but we'd always

had that component because I you know I

think it's very important for people

Muslims tend to neglect their bodies a

lot and traditional societies there was

a lot of exercise just being in a

traditional society walking and

horseback riding and archery and

wrestling all the prophets like Sam was

a very active all the way through his

whole life he was physically very active

he did had no fat on him so low lightest

and him he he was described as having a

very flat stomach even when he was 63

years of age he was very muscular his

senior and very strong and all might

have been at hot Bob once saw a man who

was overweight in

mekka and he said that would be better

if it was on somebody else right so in

other words your extra caloric intake

you know might be better if you give

that to somebody else now don't judge

anybody because some people have you

never know about people so if you see

people that are overweight you know just

don't be judgmental about them or

arrogant or anything because some people

they really they don't eat a lot and in

fact imam banannie says that some of the

Odia are tried with fat like allah makes

them fat even though they don't eat

anything and and I've seen that with

some people you know that so you know

don't don't make any judgments about

people about that and I don't want

people to feel bad or anything like that

but it's good just to do exercise you

can be women should you know

traditionally they were you know I had

good weight and and so there's no

blemish in a woman who's got weight on

her it's actually healthier for a woman

to have fat you know really so this

these skinny women end up losing their

their periods they can't have children

and you know this happens like they do

too much exercise and they actually end

up losing their femininity and becoming

it different there's a new hybrid

species out there this

androgynous so but it's good insha'Allah

I hope people enjoy it he's a chi gong

master and Qi Gong is not a religious

exercise it there is relation to the

Taoist tradition and to Shaolin temples

and things like that so so there are

there is Association but it's um it's a

it's the exercise that went with martial

arts in China and it's very very

invigorating for people that do it on a

regular basis and practice it but he's

gonna be working with you so you can

pretty much learn how to do it during

the time and it's good to learn it from

somebody there's a lot on line and

things like that

but according to the New York Times the

longest living human being ever was a

chi gong teacher in China they

ascertained he claimed to be 235 years

of age but they did ascertain that he

was at least a hundred and seventy and

and he taught she going to the imperial

troops and the new york times sent a

team over to find out about him in 1932

I think so that was actually a goji

berries and drank green tea and Jen sang

so I mean I don't know if anybody really

wants to stick around here for 175 years

but the time we're here we should try to

be as healthy as possible you know

because it's it'll help you yeah my mom

was at the grocery store and you know

how they have those all those funny

national enquirer and all those and she

was my mom's 94 this year and she was

there was another old lady in the line

and she looked at my mother and then she

looked at the magazine and she said

aren't you glad we're on our way out

sit on my neck


Video 2

smile honey masala - Sarah - even o

Muhammad said him to steal him for a

dinner together enjoy a Libra Karim was

in there Elma hamdulillah D before we

get into the Mobilio Azshara the third

part we read the first two Hawaiian the

third part of Syria Musa rope is lifted

a faux fur happy better Waheeda in


dela al-abadi Iraqi Joomla Teja some

Hawaiian Roger re Austin why didn't the

man who you met amar Peterffy her

canotary Baro - and who he has to be met

for him I mean who would you murder to

require you appear to a data file city

he wear a tee vertically were hidden

Allah has to be Minardi here Inman or

ammidon or holla of the oken O'Hara

darica what if thirakkatha tasawwuf min

d'eryka cementum a local hospital you

name him Allah who we Avari ble a Yeti

he and Italia t he coul assassin all and

Managua dae-eun a Cebu Haruka Eden Roc

leader in Natasha Wolfe Ikeda

azshara and Amanda who nasi and Amanda

who knows even Minh City Ottawa - healer

who know Siva Mineta solve one Metazoa


I hadn't sit puta what yo he he

of him

so he says that a difference of opinion

about one reality when you have

something that has one reality and then

you have all this extra difference about

it when that difference multiplies when

you have a lot of it it indicates the

depth of understanding or comprehending

the totality of that thing in other

words that thing is a deep or profound

thing so it's it's hard to grasp it in

any one articulation and then he says if

you go back to one source that contains

a summation of what's been said about it

then that articulation of that that

thing is based upon what was understood

from the original thing that you're

talking about all right

so he says the summation of all the

words that have been said and all the

details that have been said are based on

those saying it in accorded in

accordance with their knowledge their

action their States their tastes their

experience of it and other

considerations so the difference in

Sufism in Tessa Woolf is from that

perspective and for that reason at how

fallible night he was one of the greats

I mean he was actually considered he has

he's considered Shetty Sonam of his time

he was a half-filled which meant he

memorized over a hundred thousand hadith

and he he died in 430 and he wrote a

famous book called Helia - Dahlia and

what he wanted to prove that all the

early community were Sufis so he wanted

to show that that was really the

foundation of their spiritual tradition

is that they were all people of this

science of tossa Wolfe so he he when he

talks about

each one of them the heylia is their

adornment when he talks about each one

of them he he says that that and it said

that Sufism Orta Soloff is this and then

it's different from what the other said

but his point was all of those

expressions were expressions of that

person's state and so what he wanted to

show in this was that whatever portion

of their sincerity in their inner

directedness towards the divine whatever

that portion was that was their

proportion of hisself that's what they

had of Tessa Wolfe whatever however much

sincerity they had in their inner

directedness towards the divine that was

what they had and that that the tasawwuf

of every individual was his sincere

inner directedness towards the divine

that's that's what it was so that's the

third light now on to the subject the

the text that we're going to be using as

a foundation is called Issa goji and it

was written by a great scholar of what

what are called the automatic Lia and

Athiya Rodina Abadi is is the the one

who wrote the book and he called it Issa

goji which their understanding of it was

that it meant introduction because

there's a famous text that was written

by an earlier pre Islamic scholar that

was a commentary on Aristotle's

categories and he also called that the

Issa goji so that can't became a term in

the Islamic tradition for an

introduction to logic the Issa goji so

it's ISA goji is what they called it and

he wrote this this book as a primer in

logic and this was a book that was

studied after the student had studied

grammar historically you had a hierarchy

of knowledge and knowledge is built on

other knowledge is so you move from

what's known to what's unknown you need

building blocks so you need a ladder to

move up in those degrees and grammar is

basically learning how language

functions at the most basic level so we

learn how to read sentences how to

understand when we communicate we use a

lot of things IV obviously humans speak

naturally and we don't need to be

literate to communicate language many

Aboriginal peoples they speak without

any literacy and they have their

languages we now know their languages

are as sophisticated and and sometimes

more sophisticated

and modern languages so Aboriginal

languages are actually as complex as the

languages that we're speaking and

sometimes they actually have more words

to express things but Aboriginal

languages tend to be even though they

have abstraction x' because the nature

of language is abstraction you can't

have language without abstraction

they're not they tend not to be

philosophical languages they're not

languages that have the type of thinking

that develops in literate civilizations

so as a civilization becomes more

literate it it develops ways of

understanding because what what happens

is introspection and so as a people

develop intellectually they begin to

reflect on things in a way that

primitive people's or Aboriginal peoples

don't which is not to say that they

don't reflect they do they have deep

reflection they have religions they have

ways of looking at the world that are

profound and there's immense wisdom in

Aboriginal traditions and people who

have had the experience of being with

Aboriginal peoples will know that that

they're they're not it's a different way

of being then the way of settled peoples

and and peoples that that live in

complex societies because Aboriginal

peoples live in very simple societies so

logic is one of those sciences that

develops in a complex society grammar is

the analyses of language and then it's

the articulation of what's been analysed

so for instance all human beings speak

with nouns it doesn't matter what you

call a noun you can call it a noun you

can call it a SM like in Arabic you have

ism you have Lamia which is a type of

noun what we call a pronoun in English

all languages have these methods and

this is the analysis

of linguist when they go into to try to

understand language they look and there

there is a theory of Chomsky who's a

great linguist in in the United States

about this underlying grammar that

exists this universal grammar

that's actually a the early Muslim

grammarians were very much aware of that

and and they they discussed these issues

about the nature of language

you'll also find these discussions in

the Scholastic tradition but much of the

scholastic tradition was taken out of

the Muslim tradition because of the

influence of a Farabi of even Sina of

even druid of a Ghazali and others on

their discourse but they looked and they

attempted to understand the the very

nature of language what is the nature of

language and language is a right man and

abundance an right al Rahman a diamond

or an audience an alum oho

the ban that the merciful he he taught

the Quran he created the human being and

then gave the human being ban and ban is

the ability to you may you know my fee

enough see he to articulate what's in

his soul it's the ability to actually

speak what what is in your heart and

what is that does language precede

meaning or does meaning precede language

in other words do we need language to

express meaning or is language the

result of a pre-existent meaning and our

scholars argued on the side of meaning

that meaning precedes language and many

public Mabini

meanings precede the vehicles of meaning

and when you get into our peda there's

huge discussions about what is the

nature of Kalama law is it

meanings or is it the uncreated meanings

or is it the actual vehicle for those

meanings or is it both but from

different perspectives these these are

long debates in that tradition so the

the analysis of language is an analysis

that can can be done to any language in

the world

every language has grammar darisha has

grammar if you if you look at daddy

shell or Ebonics in the United States we

have a type of of a common language

amongst a minority community in the

United States that they speak and they

understand and it's it it moves it

evolves it changes but it has a grammar

and it can be analyzed Creole has a

grammar of pidgin languages have

grammars every language has a grammar

there are certain languages that are

profound civilizational languages and

and these languages because of the

nature of their traditions a certain

continuity takes place so Sanskrit is

one of those languages Chinese is one of

those languages the the the the Hebrew

language the Arabic language these are

ancient languages and in those languages

are embedded profound worldviews if you

if you study the Chinese language in the

ideograms there are literally

cosmologies that are articulated in

their ideograms so you can analyze them

if you look at Hebrew the same is true

there are there are cosmologies embedded

I'll give you one example if you look at

the word for human being in in Arabic

the the word that means human that

shared by male and females called in San

and many of the philologists argued that

there's not a plural some of them say


is a I mean a feminine form but most say

in San is like Minch it includes the

male and the female in San the the the

meaning of in san comes from Ernst which

is intimacy that the human is an

intimate creature it needs to have

intimacy to survive if it doesn't have

intimacy it dries up and dies as a

creature it needs to have Ernst and then

it's also the same word in San is the

word for pupil of the eye so the in san

the boo-boo the in san is the pupil of

the eye and one of the things that we

know that when people are experiencing

intimacy the pupil dilates it opens up

so there's an opening of the in sun that

humans when they're in experience

intimacy they open up they they they get

in Shara they expand and the highest

intimacy is intimacy with the divine

that the intimacy of at unspell a to

have intimacy with the divine and this

is the greatest expansion in sha that

occurs so another just to show you the

cosmology embedded in arabic another

word for i is i mean now i mean means

essence it means the source it's also

used for a spring anion is the

life-giving for the arabs the the the

ein of water is the life-giving source

and so there there's something embedded

in that that understanding that

indicates that the I the secret of the I

of seeing that it's related to the

essence of man that we were actually

created for masha hada were created for

witnessing like our existence is there

to witness the divine and that's why

that the essence of the human being is


which means witnessing Shahada is

witnessing so i know in san the eye of

the human being and the essence of the

human being is for Shahada it's to

witness so this is the nature of that

you can get into that now when you study

grammar you find that there's basically

two concepts in grammar there's the

concept of substance and there's the

concept of time substance is articulated

through through quality and quantity

through adjectives through nouns adverbs

these all tell us the quality of


he ran swiftly so swiftly is telling us

something about the nature of the

running but running is time you are in

time so you have time and you have place

these and this is the human being has

two orientations or orientation to time

and place so when a physician wants to

to look at a student they ask them I

mean a patient they want to orient them

to time and place so they'll say who's

the president and then they'll say where

are you and then they know that they're

in their right mind because they have

that orientation that's language time

and place that's language and that's

what makes us human

now the other thing about language is

language is rational that when we speak

we have to follow an order table sky

reason may

blue elevate wonderful know when see if

I start talking like that those are all

words but there's no order to them they

were just coming off the top of my head

and you aren't understanding you each

one of those words can convey a

comprehension I know what sky is he said

sky I know what that is

but you don't know what I'm saying or

what I mean because there was no order

so there is a logic to language and that

logic is expressed through syntax I have

to have an order to my language and in

in our language for instance in English

there is a certain type of order we have

subject we have verb right we have

object right John

hit I'm gonna use the Arab because and

when we were kids we learned you know

Dixie's Jane like when I was a kid they

probably don't even do that nobody teach

grammar anymore but in the Arab world I

I told them that you're not gonna get

rid of violence in the Arab world until

you change the way you teach grammar

because they always teach thought of as

a Dona Mirana

they all that's how their every sentence

that the first sentence you learn in

Arabic grammar is Zaid hit ammo and

you're just one like what's up with that

you know like why is aid hitting him why

couldn't he do something else to him

like you know

Zaid you know you know he saw I mean but

they have the bottom they have to have

the bottom right so so that is language

has it follows a pattern and when you

learn a language one of the hard things

about learning a foreign language

is that it doesn't often have the same

patterns that you have and you can it

can be confusing so in Arabic if I said

Alcala Kusa Musa right did I mean the

the the courgette ate Moses or did I

mean Moses ate the

courgette i can't tell because it's it's

they're both max or right there they're

there they have the Edit max aura so i

don't know but if i know if and that's

why you should do that because it's

muhammad's and ambiguous you should

that's a time where you should put the

fire first right and then if it would be

he after in grammar so you should really

say I could have Musa Kusa but if if you

no reason it's not reasonable that the

courgette 8 Musa or but there's somebody

can be called there was a minister I

think from Lebanon is she acted your

mouth here didn't they have Minister

Musa Kusa he was in Libya Musa Kusa yeah

I mean that's a father with a sense of

humor so so anyway so language now the

nature of language is it's ambiguous

language is ambiguous because you you

can say things and they can be taken in

different ways right that we have what

are in English we call double entendres

right you can say something and you can

mean different things with it and even

our tone like there's certain languages

that tone is very important like Chinese

you have different tones in in English

we use tone to accent things yeah he's

smart isn't he you know that's very

different saying wow he's smart isn't he

a completely different statement even

though it's the same words but the tone

conveys something so the these are these

this is the nature of language but

language is also clear and the clearer

language is the better we understand it

so people can eat the people say that

he's very unclear and his thinking he's

muddled in his thinking I can't

understand him what's he talking about

and teachers will tell you that you need

more clarity in your writing things like

this so this is part of it now what what

logic does is it it helps you to

understand better what you

naturally do everybody is using logic

and that was the meaning of that story

when the student comes back after the

third time from the marketplace oh my

god was dad

it's unbelievable everybody's using

logic he finally got it and that's what

you see in the world and doesn't matter

where you go logic is not a Western

concept what Aristotle did and it's it's

interesting that we're in Turkey and

we're studying this because Aristotle

was from Turkey I mean it was part of

the you know Asia Minor and it was part

of the Greek but he was he lived on the

Asian side so he was he was actually you

know from and he died here but he what

he did I mean there's a different

there's a debate about what he did and I

will get to that when I do that my body

so my point is is that when you study

logic what you're studying is really

what you're what you do naturally in the

same way that when you use when you

study grammar you're studying what you

do naturally which is you speak

grammatically you might make grammatical

mistakes in your language I ain't gonna

go there or you know I have a friend

he's very educated but he uses double

negatives all the time right and he's

got a you know he's a PhD candidate and

I like I correct him because they just

want to hear a double negative it's it's

like ouch but you know yeah

people people a double negative is a

positive right so you're actually saying

the opposite of what you think you're

saying so ain't gonna not go there

so people use language and they can

misuse language and the same is true in

reasoning and that's why you learn

grammar to protect your tongue from

making mistakes you learn logic to guard

your reasoning so that your reasoning

skills are better but also so that you

can see the arguments of others and be

able to criticize them does that make

sense now one of the things about our

traditions it's very important because

we have morality better known we believe

in the degrees of knowledge in the same

way that you have in the same way that

you have Newtonian physics and quantum

physics they're very different right

Newtonian physics and quantum physics

are two completely different physics

quantum physics all of the Newtonian

laws break down in quantum mechanics but

quantum physics has been observed so

they know that underlying this Newtonian

world that we live in there's another

reality which is quantum and they don't

fully understand it and they're trying

to work out really what's going on but

the quantum world is very weird for

instance in the quantum world you can be

in two places at one time in in the

Newtonian world you can you can only be

in one place at one time

and in a quantum world you could really

you could walk through a wall in a

Newtonian world you can't so for those

of you who had the unfortunate

experience of seeing the matrix the

matrix was somebody who was learning to

work in a quantum world right I mean

that's really what was happening to him

was that he was learning to work in the

quantum world where the laws of physics

that are Newtonian don't apply so

bullets won't kill you in that world but

in a Newtonian world they will and so

one of the things that's important for

to understand is that this logic works

on one level of existence but there are

other levels of existence where this

logic completely breaks down and one of

the interesting things about the Western

tradition is that they've never been

able to really deal with these degrees

of knowledge and so they end up denying

certain types of realities because they

don't fit in to other types of realities

and they have a lot of problems in their

philosophy because of this whereas the

Muslims have always understood they

Shetty and how people are two very

important concepts in our tradition you

have a Sharia and you have a happy cow

if you look in the Mata beam Ematic

there's a hadith where Moses and Adam

have a debate and when Moses meets Adam

Musa and he said it meets on him he says

you're the one waitin s you you led us

astray right in other words it's your

fault that this whole mess has happened

and so he's talking that's that's the

the logic of Aristotle that's that's

where Moosa A&M; was working at that

level when he when he made that

statement it's like a judge in a court

case you broke the law and then there

were these repercussions right

Adam Adam his response was you know to

go from the Newtonian world into the

quantum world and he said your Moses

your Moussa you're the one that God

bestowed all this knowledge on and gave

you all this wisdom are you going to

blame me for something called arolea

cabinet and o'clock at ceremony you know

are you gonna blame me for something

that was decreed for me before I came

into existence and in another rewire

that's not an immortal the Prophet said

Adam defeated Moses

in the in the argument because he was

using another logic he wasn't using the

logic of the courtroom of the Sharia he

was using another logic and so that's

important for us when we go into this to

understand that this is the logic of the

Newtonian world it's not the logic of

the quantum world it's the logic of the

Newtonian world but it is the logic that

our Sharia is based on that every

rational system of law in the world is

based on when you go into a court of law

you are going into a court that relies

entirely on logical arguments and what

lawyers do is they argue now if the

judge or the jury is not trained in

logic then they're susceptible to

logical fallacies appeal to pity is a

type of soft supple appeal to pity so

they'll give a sob story that'll make

these people feel all this compassion

that's actually a logical fallacy to do

that now sometimes it's important but

that's not an argument to do that that's

not an argument that holds up against

these rigorous standards of

argumentation or they'll use other types

of fallacies poisoning the well is a

logical fallacy and if people aren't

trained to identify these arguments or

they'll say you know a therefore B but

it's a non sequitur it doesn't follow

but if somebody's not trained to see

that one of the great Crispus who was a

great early logician he said he noted

that even animals use logic because he

was walking once and he saw a rabbit

turn a corner and there was a three

roads and it went down a road and then a

hound was chasing it and it came around

and it couldn't see the rabbit any more

so it it sniffed the first road and then

went to the second sniffed a second and

without sniffing the third it just went

down the third so crucifix

derived from that that the dog was using

logic because it was either a B or C if

not a or B then C but it did it

intuitively and so this is the you know

this this is the study of logic it's why

it's important you cannot one of the the

the most important aspects of democracy

is that democracy is a type of

government that is saying that instead

of using might to impose our will we're

gonna use argument that we make cases so

you will have somebody will try to

legislate a law and he'll give arguments

and then those people listening to it

will either be convinced or not

convinced for instance if if they're

gonna go to war people will give

arguments if you remember in the United

States before the Iraqi war what did

they do they made all these arguments

for why they were gonna go to war why

because they're saying we have to use

reason but if people aren't trained in

analyzing arguments they can be

manipulated and fooled and tricked into

doing things that are dangerous and

harmful and destructive so that's why

it's very important to to know this so

that you can defend yourself against

those types of logical fallacies so now

we're going to go into the the ten

foundations in in our tradition and my

body and Ashura

are a member buddha in arabic is ism

makan it's it's a place where something

happens that muffin like muffin is

another form of it so you have like

masjid is a place of sujood Mata is a

place of Taba

it's the place

where you cook bah bahah means to cook

so whenever you see that pattern the

muffled pattern it's a place of

something it can also be time as well so

like most simmer mo lid the play mode it

could be the place or the time you were


so the molded in Mecca is where the

Prophet was born but the molded is also

the 12th of Rabi no.1 according to most

of the scholars so meba is the place

where you begin something the meb de but

that too I began Abdel Khun lo Imran


Lemieux Bobby B Smith laughs who were up

top every affair that is momentous or

weighty that does not begin with

bismillah is cut off of barakah so so we

begin things but that to the mugdha is a

starting place it also means the

principle now if you look at principle

it comes from a Latin word Principia

which means first right so it's also the

same idea the principles are those first

things the axioms the things that are

things are based upon predicated upon so

Sciences have our scholars identified 10

my body that students should always

begin their coursework and that for

those of you who have studied with me

over the years I've always tried to

begin my classes with my body and Ashura

and so this is a Mohammed Bernardo Seban

was great grammarian he's famous for a

commoner and the envy of even Malik he

versified there other ones Imam and

mockery also versified the tenma body

there are different versions of this but

this is a way of remembering them so in

them of adequately offend and Ashura the

Fen is an art it's what we call art the

art of logic pendulum on top innama body

could defend an Azshara I'll head to one

more guru from a samara so he's saying

that well I translate it down so I'll

just go through well father who when a

spittoon were well there

what is more esteemed a do

sharukh Massa Aaron well bar Doble

bardic tefa women Darryl jamia has a

shot of a-- so i versified this into

english each science contains these ten

elements the essence or definition

because definition is getting to the

essence of something the essence its

subject and benefits its virtue

relations and source its name once it

draws legal force add topics and all is

contained with mastery much honor is


so that's stuff a doing most of so the

first is the definition a definition

comes in in in logic it comes from a

Tesla water you have to conceptualize

something in order to define it at AA so

water is to understand its form and when

we get into the formal call the causes

therefore causes so you have material

efficient formal and final these are the

four causes we'll get into this in

material logic the formal cause is the

surah in arabic it's called surah and 2

so water is to to get a the image of the

thing and in fact Aristotle called it

the phantasm the imago it's - it's to

get the image of a thing in your mind

and this is this is grasping you know

what we talked about

I haven't grasped it right grasp right

that the mind grasps things and and so

it's through the senses that we come to

know the world if anybody knows the

story of Helen Keller when when she was

a little girl she she became ill and she

was blind blinded she lost her sight she

lost her ability to hear and she lost

her ability to speak I completely cut

off from the world she became like a

animal in her

description by the time she was about

seven years old her father brought a

woman who was also blind brought her to

teacher Annie Sullivan and she couldn't

break through she couldn't get through

to her like - because she needed she

wanted to teach her language but she

needed to teach her symbols and the way

that she was doing it was with her hand

she would write things and then she

would take a thing and she would have

her feel it to grasp it cuz I mean

imagine you can't see you can't hear you

can't speak but she can feel she can

smell and she can taste so she doesn't

have all of her five senses two very

important ones which are the inroads of

knowledge in the summer what a boss

oughta work for ADA it's the ears and

the sight that allow users these are the

inroads of knowledge is how you come to

know things is through the eyes and the

ears she couldn't understand and she did

all these things to try to get her but

the breakthrough can't came with water

she was symbolizing in her hand a symbol

for water and she was pouring from the

pump she was pouring water in her hand

and if you read the description it's a

very powerful description of what

happens to her because she wrote her

autobiography and it's worth reading but

she's she's feeling the water and her

teacher is symbolizing in the hand and

then suddenly that the light went on she

understood that the symbol over here

that the what's called an artificial

sign in logic the the water right it's a

positive sign the this Delana Whataya

was the same as the the experience of

that cool liquid flowing on her hand she

got it and she understood that what's

interesting is she said suddenly her

entire interior changed she said a light

went off in her consciousness

what's interesting is that that night in

ends and Sullivan's Diaries she wrote I

saw a light coming to the face of Helen

today that's the light of consciousness

meaning penetrated her her intellect for

the first time she understood

abstraction she and that is what we do

we abstract this is this is the

incredible gift that God has given human

beings is the ability to symbolize too

abstract to understand abstraction signs

we are we are by our nature sign makers

and sign readers and this is why the

Quran calls it signs ayats in a fanatic

Allah ayats The Omen yet of a Quran

right this is this is what it's it's for

people that reflect on what things mean

what is the meaning of the sign and so

the HUD once you have a once you

comprehend something you have that

grasping you can then symbolize so she

had the water she grasped it okay I'm

getting that now she's got the symbol

for it right so that's the so she can

define now water water is that cool

liquid that is tasteless without smell

taste right doesn't have any or color so

we all know what water is we have a

simple apprehension of water how we

define it it's the basis of biological

life that's one definition

it's made of a hydrogen two hydrogen

atoms and one oxygen atom that's another

definition and that's coming from the

high love the definer because a chemist

will define it one way a biologist will

define it another way but they're

talking about the same thing based on

the perspective that they're looking

from so logic may be defined as quote

the art which directs the very act of

reason that which enables us to advance

with order ease and correctness in the

act of reason itself and that's from a

great Catholic logician Jacques Maritain

brilliant philosopher who died in 1973 a

little biographical note about him

that's kind of interesting when he was a

very young man he studied with Burks and

Bergson was a brilliant early twentieth

century philosopher but of that new

school of philosophy that was very

radical and abandoning traditional

philosophy and he was one of his

brilliant students and he he met a

Russian Jewish Russian lady Raisa they

were at the Sorbonne together and they

made it they fell in love and anyway

they made a pact that if they didn't

find the truth within a year that they'd

just commit suicide together a very

French thing to do but they discovered

st. Thomas Aquinas that year so he ended

up spending the rest of his life writing

commentaries on st. Thomas anyway

that's his definition of logic which is

not his but there are many but that's

his articulation of that and then as a

science this is from a Muslim text book

written in probably the 1840s 1850s by a

great scholar from fast as a science it

regulates the investigation of concepts

and proposition in ways that enable one

to arrive at a previously unknown

proposition another definition is the

science that enables us to conclude from

something that is known something that

was previously unknown so it's going

from what is known these are the first

two premises of the syllogism to the

conclusion which is what was unknown so

that's about it even at hazard feci and

then logic may be may be defined as the

science that directs our mental

operations and our mental operations are

three understanding judging and

reasoning these are the three acts of

the the mind when it's in a rational

state I mean there's obviously other


but when we're communicating this is

this is what what we're doing so that

they proceed with order facility and

consistency toward the attainment of

truth the mental operations referred to

in this definition are the three basic

acts of the intellect namely conception

or simple apprehension judgment and

reasoning so that's from crach who's

another traditional logician the name is

the ISM so you give like you give

Sciences names and most schools today

what was formerly known as logic is now

called critical thinking critical

thinking is one branch of material logic

it's it's part of material logic but you

have formal logic and material logic

what they call the lesser or greater

logic the greater logic is material

logic lesser logic is formal logic

formal logic studies the formal rules of

reasoning and material logic looks at

the actual content of of what you're

reasoning about so critical thinking is

what logic has been reduced to in the

West in Arabic logic is known as montec

because it contains three meanings the

ability to speak the ability to

comprehend universals and we'll get into

that and the power of comprehension

itself Arabs chose this word month up

because logic strengthens the first the

ability to speak it makes your speaking

more orderly more clear more persuasive

enables the second in other words the

ability to comprehend universals because

you have to understand what a universal

is and we'll get into that and then to

the second to be more accurate and endow

spur fection on the third right so the

power of understanding imam al-ghazali

called it the touchstone of knowledge he

wrote five books on logic imam

al-ghazali he was a great logician he

said that he learned logic from from the

prophets because he studied the quranic

arguments and we'll get into that their

arguments but even tenia

wrote a book refuting the logicians or a

10-month Ophion and he said it down

Muhammad I know their anthem and Montauk

and yeah like in a note and I Muhammad

had been in Cena he said you know even

Tamia claimed he learned logic from the

prophets but the reality is he learned

it from even Xena

he called it neha kanava which means the

touchstone of knowledge and also the

criterion of knowledge she called it

Mary are a little more merrily in the

standard of knowledge it is also called

the key to knowledge mystical heirloom

it's also called the balance and muezzin

because the soundness of speech is

measured by it another name given to it

is the upright scale based on the

quranic verse imam al-ghazali actually

thought that this verse was revealed was

referring to using logic was Zeno Biswas

and Muslim so he called it a kiss toss

and Muslim it's the standard the upright

scales of knowledge aristotle refer to

it as analytics prior and posterior it's

also divided into major material logic

and minor formal logic depending upon

the subject matter formal logic covers

the validity or invalidity of the

syllogism forms syllogisms form and

structure while material logic covers

the actual content of the syllogism the

late 19th century witnessed the

emergence of symbolic or mathematical

logic for centuries until the 16th

century Francis Bacon introduced the the

new organ on which the organ on is the

six books of Aristotle that he wrote on

logic in our tradition even Sina wrote a

Shifa which basically was an Arab


of the Hellenistic tradition because he

wanted to free Muslims from any

dependency on a foreign source so he

wrote the Shifa and and it's it's he

definitely added some things to

Aristotle's logic and he has his own

views about certain things but it's

essentially Aristotelian law

and then from that the metaphysical

components were removed largely by the

Sunni scholars and Imam al-ghazali

introduces it in the mostess part which

is his most important work on a solid

fill in the Mustafa he has a 40 page

introduction to the mostess foot which

is all logic so it's basically a primer

and he felt that the sudhi scholar a

jurist would have to have have some

knowledge of logic even tamiya argued

that the only form of logic that was

useful was analogical reasoning and he

did not he actually refutes deductive

reasoning in his book and argues that

inductive reasoning is really the only

type of logic that has any validity and

this is pretty much the argument of

Francis Bacon Aristotle does not deal a

lot with inductive reasoning he did not

consider it as important as deductive

reasoning and for a very simplistic

understanding of the two deductive

reasoning argues from universals to

particular Zand inductive goes from

particulars to universals so in in

inductive reasoning is scientific

reasoning it's looking at things out

there and then deriving conclusions from

looking at particulars deriving

Universal conclusions deductive

reasoning would be based on a type of

epistemology that is no longer deemed

important in the West but is the

foundation of Muslim Jewish and

Christian epistemology which is what

they call epistemological realism and

this is we believe in what's called

Motaba the correspondence theory of

truth that truth is what corresponds

with reality reality is something that's

intelligible which is metaphysical


and you know just I'll say about this

Muslims today many Muslims around the

world are taught that philosophy is evil

and Muslims should never study

philosophy the reality of it is is that

we are all heavily influenced by

philosophy most of you who have gone to

Western schools have imbibed

a great deal of philosophy without

really understanding it or knowing how

it happened or why it happened and you'd

have to study the history of philosophy

to really understand how these these

ideas emerged as the dominant ideas but

if you do not philosophize somebody else

philosophizes for you it's as simple as

that and we are we are affected deeply

by philosophical constructs constantly

liberal capitalism free-market these are

all philosophical ideas there there are

economics has philosophy right

utilitarianism most of the ethics that

exist today in the West is and

increasingly in the Muslim world is

utilitarian ethics which is a

consequential it looks at the ends of

things Muslims never considered that a

basis for an ethical philosophy Muslims

always had virtue ethics at the heart of

their tradition virtue ethics looks at

the virtue of a thing and this is why

for instance abortion is a philosophical

problem and the if you read arguments

for or against abortion their

philosophical arguments if you read

arguments for or against same-sex

marriage their philosophical arguments

because law has philosophy the legal

philosophy of the Muslims is called a

solid fit it's legal philosophy it is

philosophy it's trying it's it's using

the intellect to think through problems

that's essentially what philosophy

is and so you're going to get it whether

you like it or not whatever you call it

it doesn't really matter it's it's it's

basically thinking and learning how to

think and that's why that this science

was the foundation of it and this idea

that Imam al-ghazali somehow killed this

from the Muslim tradition is a great

slander on him because he was a great

philosophical thinker even Tamiya was a

philosopher and if you read his his

books you'll see he's making

philosophical arguments so it's

important for educated Muslims to

understand that not everybody has to

study this and not everybody should

study it but it's important that people

in your society study it and in an

educated society it's important that

everybody has some degree of working

knowledge with this this should be

primary education traditionally in

Muslim societies this was taught at the

high school level it's not advanced it

wasn't considered Advanced Studies at

all if you read it in a show if a Nasser

uses logic based on ohm at Abilene which

was a text taught to 12 year olds 13

year olds and he's using syllogisms and

logic should not be introduced in the

pre logical period so a child really

should not be introduced to logic until

they reach about 12 or 13 that's

important so anyway that those are the

names mathematical or symbolic logic

emerges in 1913 a very important work

principia mathematica was published by

Lord Whitehead Alfred North Whitehead

and Bertrand Russell Bertrand Russell

was brilliant mathematician but

basically really gave a devastating blow

to traditional logic before that for the

last two thousand three hundred and


years traditional logic what was taught

there were certain additions added with

bacon because of inductive reasoning

that was developed and then John Stuart

Mill also developed inductive reasoning

and then you have boolean algebra which

is George Boole self-taught

mathematician from Ireland who

introduces another type of logic and

then you had Charles Pierce in America


pragmatist philosopher who was also a

brilliant logician but before Russell

this is what was taught to people it was

taught in the United States my

grandmother I have her textbook from

high school public high school and in

Wisconsin and she studied logic and

rhetoric that was just part of

curriculum in and people could think a

lot better I think because of it so they

were better off for it so I think we'll

we'll stop there and any questions

logic even to me

he was uh he was a brilliant scholar in

his own right and he he was in his mind

he was really trying to defend what what

he perceived to be this pure teaching

that came to the Prophet SAW lies to him

and wanted to make sure that revelation

that what he was always central I mean

his impulses I think were very honorable

impulses and and he truly believed that

that the metaphysics was very dangerous

to the Islamic ethos and he was

particularly deeply troubled by two

metaphysical thinkers

they've been out of me that had to me

who was very influential even out of me

was taught in the Ottoman period

extensively he was called Chi Akbar I

mean now he's anathematized by most

Muslims but since the 13th century he

was pretty much the end all in in

philosophical Sufism so he was very

troubled by him he actually mentions in

his fatale and I've read this I haven't

read this in a book I read it from him

he mentioned that he benefited greatly

from even Auto be even Tamiya until he

read the full source he said when he

read the full soul so to him he realized

too how dangerous the man's ideas were

and so he you know he spent a lot of his

life writing polemical arguments against

metaphysics and and what he felt was

that he said originally he thought logic

was fine but then he realized that logic

is predicated on a metaphysical premise

that he felt was very dangerous

and we're going to get into that when we

deal with the universals in some ways

even tenía really is the first

nominalist I mean the nominalism is

attributed to William of Ockham but I

think it's arguable and somebody would

this would be a good PhD dissertation

for somebody you'd have to do a lot of

work to do it but I think would be a

very interesting PhD to look at the

nominal istic tendencies of Eamon Tamiya

anyway any other questions

Dominic it's very interesting that the

lot logic wasn't talked additionally to

youngsters only art once they begin to a

reason right I tell the difference

between things is there connection

between that not so no physical

connection between that and the

categorization of knowledge as in that

hierarchical way that the Muslims used

to do

could it be relative to different age

groups the Muslim tradition and it's not

dissimilar to the Western tradition

before the you know the end of the 19th

century the Muslims believed that the

great gift that young children had was

memorization that the mind is very agile

and the ability to absorb a lot of

information is readily available to a

child of about seven and so they would

focus on memorizing rote memorization

without understanding at about 12 the

intellect really starts kicking in this

is what they call sinew Tamizh is 7

where they're moving out of the magical

realm because children before seven are

in there in a magical world which is why

the prophets Elias and prohibited you

know you cannot strike a child before

seven years of age and

and you shouldn't because they're not

there's no tech leaf at all at about


- cliff starts kicking in it's not there

but now they can really understand

people say no no they know before 7:00

my 5 year olds no they don't they're not

capable of lying a 5 year old people say

no he's lying I know he is they're not

in their world there are different

possibilities you know really I mean

quite literally there are different

possibilities so if they break something

at 5 or 4 and you say who broke that I

don't know you know that is a totally

viable answer for a four-year-old and

it's not a lie they're not they're not

making it up

it's just in their world it's perfectly

acceptable for them not to know who

broke it even though they know they

broke it but at 7 it's different now

they know they broke it and they know

that's the only real possible answer so

that is the beginning of Tamizh and then

by twelve thirteen as puberty begins to

settle in the logic kicks in now what's

interesting is in all pre-modern

societies mathematics was not taught to

children other than basic rote

memorization only they they did not

teach any mathematics to children before

12 or 13 and it is well-documented that

a child can learn all of the mathematics

that we teach between 6 and 12 they can

learn between 12 and 13 all of it and

they actually learn it better and they

understand it and they don't get the

math phobias that a lot of a lot of

people are traumatized from from

mathematics because they were taught to

early and so it's too abstract

mathematics is very abstract it's a

completely abstract subject and there's

the child's not in the abstract world

yet they're still in the world of just

sensory experience they haven't entered

into abstraction so that that's really

why that was the understanding that

you didn't want to traumatize in fact

Steiner I mean I'm not a big fan of

Steiner so I'm not promoting him or

anything but Steiner argued that if you

introduce mathematics or logic to

prepubescent children you'll actually

disrupt the process of their like the

menage the the onset of puberty will

change you'll affect these things so

you'll get earlier onset puberty because

you're disrupting a natural evolution

and these this wisdom of ancient peoples

so any other question everybody's it's

all clear

would you say that in general the

private school is consistent with the

Muslim world view and not at all I don't

think so

I mean with that that's another that

would be a whole long discussion about

pragmatism and what pragmatism is I mean

Muslims there we're all pragmatist to

some degree but a lot of the Islamic law

is not based on pragmatic things there

are other considerations than the

pragmatic one is not the only

consideration that Muslims would would

use huh yeah

surely this will be our last question

sonica me if animals have logic as you

described and we know that they have

communication from the stories of the

quran particularly with Nabi Solomon and

the hood hood bird who had very advanced

concepts of God and worship and things

like that is the philosophical reasoning

power that the basis of human search for

God and could that be the difference

between animals and humans is our

ability to reason is that what is the

foundation of our search and the

capacity that because we seem to have

animals seem to have most of the skills

and the capacity that we have in terms

of communication logic and things like

that no I think more than reasoning when

we get in because the first section of

this which I'm gonna focus on more than

any of the other sections because what

I'm hoping that you get out of this is a

desire to pursue this study this is not

something that we can really do in three

weeks and I'm gonna cover the text

though insha'Allah but I but the when

you get in from the the most important

thing that I want you to get is the the

the first section on understanding and

the second section on propositions on

the the reasoning the syllogisms I'm

going to focus more on material

fallacies than on the other because the

syllogism takes a lot of time and

practice you have to do exercises learn

how to reduce those syllogisms learn you

know there's there's four types

of what they call the moods and the

figures when you get into that there's

four types and they extend to 19 and I

mean there's 64 possibilities and only

16 of them really have validity so it's

learning how to work with syllogisms

because every argument can be reduced to

a syllogism every argument there's no

argument they can I mean you have long

arguments that sometimes take sole

rights you have to use several steps to

get to it and that's why symbolic logic

became a very useful tool for people

that this is all they do is logic

because it enables you to get large

abstract arguments condense down for me

and I'm gonna when I get into the first

section I'm going to talk about the

anima atom that's my what that means

according to our tradition well father

did you know Rossi said about it the the

single most important thing that we have

and the gift that we've been given is

not so much reasoning but it is simple

apprehension it's comprehension it's

understanding and that comes from our

ability to abstract an abstraction is a

uniquely human thing animals as far as

we know do not abstract angels do not

abstract either because they have

immediate intuitive knowledge so they're

they don't go through an abstraction

process and this is why when the angels

were told by Allah to tell them the name

they couldn't do it because they they

can't go through the process of

abstraction they don't abstract in the

way that we do they have immediate

intuitive knowledge of things whereas

the humans have the ability to abstract

and that ability is what enables you to

abstract the divine from the material

world and that's why the material world

is the great a sign of God people that

are looking for proofs for the divine

the proof

is is all around them it's right in

front of them and that's why that people

that deny God are called blind in the

Quran it's a profound spiritual

blindness to deny that there is a

reality behind this that is infinite

that is conscious that it has knowledge

it has will and it has being whether

it's a personal God that we find in the

Abrahamic phase or whether it's an

impersonal God that is more in the

Eastern traditions because you know

Buddhists pray Hindus pray they have a

different concept it's a different

concept of reality of the divine but

they still have an understanding that

there is transcendent being that there

is reality beyond this and and that is

the fifth or nature of humans the

Abrahamic expression of that is through

the personal God and it's our belief

that that is a real expression of God

and that's why we attempt to share it

with others but that that is absolutely

coming out of this ability and and one

aspect of this is really about that and

that's why traditionally theology and

logic were sister Sciences I mean our

our theological tradition used logic it

was part of it and was never divorced

from it after the 4th century 5th

century so subhanak alone time together

one day you know he lanta stopped for

the water lake


Video 3: 

Donovan r-rahim

so that was Sarah - in the Muhammad an

evil scientist even Catalina together a

very very Crone

I love my enemy Matt I limped and I was

in their enemies in the end ma well

studied under seen Muhammad when he was

like he was sent him to semen kit here

just before we start I think it's likely

inshallah that the the Foreign Minister

dr. Hamid is gonna come and address the

group and so it's just everybody could

just have real no quick movements

because the people with him get very

nervous last year we had dinner with him

during Ramadan and he's from cunha so he

invited us he wanted the retina to come

here this year so his team based on his

request really helped us a lot

facilitated the the program so we have a

debt of gratitude to Turkey first and

foremost and then to those people that

were instrumental in helping us make

this a reality so he just for those of

you who don't know who he is he was a

very well-established intellectual and a

professor at the University before he

entered into politics he has a PhD in

political science he's written several

books and they've been translated into

English he's considered a serious

intellectual in Western academia in the

area of political science so he's he's a

heavyweight and it's very generous of

him especially during this time because

as you know there's a lot of things

going on and foreign ministers are for

the Americans it's basically the

Secretary of State same same role like

John Kerry's playing that role right now

so they're very busy they do a lot of

traveling they travel all over it's

international relations so whenever

there's these crises they're the ones

that have to interface with everybody

else so it's but with having said that I

said probably because the nature of

people that have very heavy

responsibilities is they're not always


and they get called so chawla he'll be

here though anyway let me continue on

with the next Veda and then we're going

to finish the movie

alright the number four and Qaeda means

a base it's a foundation it's

unfortunately been you know if you study

touch weed you study what's called

al-qaeda so they were going back to the

United States ask you what you were

studying don't say al Qaeda and if you

have a little book in your you know the

comic I didn't know Ronnie or al-qaeda

about that dia or something so but Qaeda

is a principle or a foundation so how

are it are similar to elude their

foundational principles and in that way

they're related to logic because logic

is based on certain postulates or axioms

so he says in the fourth car sit sit

told you he miss rotten

Akane him in Haiti or Tahoe al hakuta a

Nevada my Abajo where is a ho mess

rotten Bodoni shorty he really P Burdell

Cora fellas immature people Eamonn when

integer or da da Cunha Alice in

memorable Islam the lattice alpha Allah

be alert or for a camel larvae

here to eat lamb in ho war Ithaca in

libertà so often is Allah Allah Allah be

citizen what about you and voila whom

are in Lobby Immonen is Leia who are

hidden men who Madonna Cozumel Jamie

audit razumihin little Azumi ha

Sal Hockney Catalano mal original ad

shaadi vara ajudar aha in la fille ha

camera higher aha

with him women who about American

rahimova lo Dada mental Wafaa what a

meter ha ha ha des end up woman - haha

what a mere tasawwuf papa deficit woman

yeah man I've been a whore Martha at the

hakka food - tez end of an overall en

nogada Belgian barrel Mooji beer in fel

Hekmati well I can what a fuss attorney

Lee hallelujah Amory he Manitowoc Hill

had women who MA and Marcy Attila woman

at a colossal Musharraf eleméry Lila

what the haka 1/3 Attila p.m. he but

happy a TV I know Tomas who keep it

happy far out of that Iike so this is a

long longer than the others but he says

that sitteth away Joe which is what how

he defined Tessa wolf this idea of a

sincere inner directedness towards the

divine is conditioned upon it being in

accordance with what is pleasing to the

truth and by means that pleased that the

the truth they'll help and you cannot

have something that's conditioned upon

something without the condition the

Quran says he is not content or pleased

with his servants to be in a state of

denial or ingratitude alcoa so when I

our Valley rebellion Cobra and in our

pita I think he'll discuss that the

difference between because you have

rebar that a las peñitas not content

with but allows and then you have the

riba that you have things that he's not

content with but he allows and then you

have things that he's content with and

allows so then he says and it's

necessary it follows that the

realization of a man if you are grateful

your Lord will be pleased with you and

so this necessitates an acting according

to submission to the

state of submission to the truth at

least I am and then he says so there's

no tasawwuf without Fick because the

sitka told you is what the tasawwuf is

but it has to be in accord with what's

pleasing and then he says because you

can only know the decrees or the rulings

of God the exoteric ones the external

ones only by that by fit

it's v that teaches you how to bathe how

to pray the ritual formal components

because tough so wolf is dealing with

the interstate

during those rituals but but you have to

do it through the form of the ritual

that if you don't have the form then the

interstate is not going to be able to

function as it should and so he says

what I've ended up at the Sullivan you

can't have fit the formal without the

internal so you can't have the internal

without the external you can't have the

East of Turk without the exoteric you

can't you can't have the fruit without

the the the the whole or the exterior

that protects the fruit right you can't

you can't benefit from a fruit of it if

it has no exterior protection so and

then he says and and whatever mighty

love the Iman you can't have either of

them without Eman so one of them without

the other two it's just it's not lay

aside why are you doing minima one

without the other is impossible you

can't have it so desi manage Amina

related Azumi huh me so you have to

have both because of the inter

dependency of one upon the other in in

the hokum in in this the outward and the

inward like the interdependence of

spirits with bodies so he's giving you

an analogy now this is a type of

reasoning he's showing you an analogy

that enables you to understand this so

he says what I was rude ilaha illah

feeha you can't have the spirit except

in a body there's you can't have the

spirit except in the body

Camela hiya tada ha Allah be ha and in

the same way you cannot have a body that

has life without the spirit so he's

saying the 5th is the body the citta

Torah is the spirit even a paella in the

heck um he says that Ahmad who the the

the deeds are our bodies and he said

that the spirit that are WA are the a

class is the sincerity in the body so

your deeds are like bodies their forms

but those forms are animated by your

sincerity and then he says and this is

why Imam Malik said and this is a famous

statement attributed to my Mac that's

mentioned in many books whoever does

tessa wolf and this was a word we know

that was used during his time already

it's very early it's used very early and

imam attic was aware of the Sufis and

obviously as somebody was sick but to

what yo he himself has a big portion of

this science even though he didn't teach

it formally in the way that it was

formalized later by imam and Junaid and

so he says whoever becomes a Sufi

muntaha Wafaa what a muta and he

doesn't learn fit alongside it fazenda

he will go astray he'll become like a

heretic scindia is a heretic woman tough

economy tasawwuf Akata fess up and if he

learns fit without sincerity without the

pathology oh then he becomes a fasiq so

he he'll be in a state of disobedience

one man Gemini Boehner who market a hot

cup and the one that brings the two


he's the one who's realizes what Imam

Shafi he said soufiane with a peon

vocalist owari de when you were happy

lair council the souviens the fappy

don't be one of them without the other

and he said by Al I'm giving you sound

advice this is in his Diwan Imam Shafi

he said because the PHA without the

tassel wolf he's he doesn't have the

spirit and the Sufi without the fifth he

doesn't have the protection of the so

you need world this is what he's saying

and then he explains Imam city

anisotropic explains - sunda kelapa the

reason the first becomes a heretic is

because he'll end up saying Belgium at

Mujib he he will because he'll have

spiritual states but he's not protected

by the Sharia he's not protected by a

mental understanding and so he'll end up

saying things that are heretical one of

them is that he won't see us Bab and so

he'll actually go into pure determinism

without recognizing free will and then

you go into what's called the anti

Gnomeo state where the anti no meals

were people that did not see the sharia

as binding on them that they were about

they were free from the Sharia because

they had achieved the haqiqa and Imam

Junaid was asked about them and he said

would he say about a man who said that

was all too hetero fear at a near Sharia

I I have arrived and so I'm no longer

bound by the law he said nah I'm God was

all while so the you know Jaheim he's

arrived but he's arrived to hell so

because he'll negate the hikmah and the

accom he'll end up negating the hickman

cam and this is why even machine in his

famous prayer he says that he seeks

refuge Oh had it to heed from the

dangers of tow he'd because you you can

have an experience of tawheed of a pure

unity where you lose sight of sharia and

some of the ecstatic Sufis have shop a

hat that are famous about this Suhani

glory to me

but II see what law you know things like

that they made these utterances that

that came from that the danger of of

having this profound experience of unity

without having the protection of the

constructs that give it a proper

understanding and then he says the fussa

Thani the second one the without

so of he goes astray because li Hulu we

are a MIDI minute told you he'll had Jim

in Houma because he goes he doesn't have

in his actions the Tahajjud this sahaja

that will protect him from these going

astray like he won't he won't have that

sincerity that will protect him from the

dangers that ofup e without sauce olive

has or the sufi without v has those are

the two dangers and and if he doesn't

have the citta then then he falls into

one of those two dangers and he says so

he falls into marcia with allah on the

one hand and then that anything that he

does is does it's done with the

condition of cloth then we start up

phenomen he's supposed to have a class

that's a condition of any action is

sincerity that you do it with a pure

intention in lapa given well a Ichabod o

in lapa Heba Allah is pure and he only

accepts purity so if you don't have

purity in your intentions then you don't

what the hakka

Assad Italy chiami he but happy uppity

minute Emma's who keep it Huck so the

third one has realization - hahaha he

has realization because he is fulfilling

the reality vallabha the ina tamazuki

barack in in the essence of his firmness

of his state of firmness in the truth

he's fulfilling that reality which has

an exoteric and esoteric component so

he's he's solid he's

firm in his p.m. bill Huck he has the

both sides of it so he says so

understand that we got yesterday to the

subject matter now the subject is an

mulled water and and mold or in Arabic

it comes from Wawa

well dr. Shaitan water and deposit

something to place it and so the mold or

is what has been posited here so the

subject matter of logic covers the three

operations of the mind and the three

operations of the mind are understanding

judgment and reasoning understanding is

your grasping of concepts now one of the

things about modern logic which is

called propositional logic as opposed to

term logic traditional logic is called

term logic because it's it's built on

terms so you have building blocks if you

look for instance you could one of the

things what's interesting about Plato's

Academy we don't really know what was

taught in Plato's Academy but we know

geometry was taught in it because you

had to master the books of of geometry

just to get into the Academy and we know

that you could studied at the Academy so

Euclid is the one that wrote all that

stuff down that he was being taught but

the geometry which was translated early

into the Arabic tradition and Imam Shafi

studied geometry in fact said meant

andaman hand essa Jesuit all right you

who whoever learns geometry will have a

very sound opinion in things one of the

interesting things in American history

is Lincoln Abraham Lincoln he taught

himself geometry at the age of 40 he was

a lawyer and he actually writes in his

in in his diaries that the reason that

he study

geometry was because he kept hearing

this word demonstration that the lawyer

has to demonstrate and he said he looked

up the word in several dictionaries and

they just none of them could really give

him a definition of it he said it was

like telling a blind man that blue is a

color right so he ended up taking time

off from his law just to study the

thirteen books of Euclid and he mastered

the books and he could prove all the

demonstration he could demonstrate all

of the theorems and so that's one of the

reasons why he was such a powerful

debater when he debated is that he knew

how to demonstrate something beyond a

reasonable doubt

so the Euclid he bases his book on

definitions he's got these definitions

right then book one there's twenty-three

definitions and then he's got postulates

and he's got common notions these things

are assumptions in other words you can't

prove them you either get them or you

don't so a common notion is the whole is

greater than the part if you if you if

you don't get that you're never gonna

understand geometry and and I don't

think much else because even children

can understand that so the the

definitions he defines things like he

set a point one of the definitions in

the first one as a point has no parts

what does that mean a point has no parts

it doesn't have depth breadth or width

right or a line is a is a segment of a

breathless segment what does that mean

there are mysterious definitions but

those are the assumptions of geometry if

you don't

assume those things then you can't prove

the theorems later on right because the

theorems can be proved but they can only

be proved with those things that are

assumed the common notions the

postulates and the definitions those are

assumed logic is similar in that way

because geometry is to mathematics what

logic is to language it's very very

similar and so the subject of you know

of logic is understanding and the

understanding is is concept you have to

understand you have to grasp concepts

and it's the argument that people that

are committed to to what is

epistemological realism is that the

world is something that makes sense to

us the world is is something that we can

actually understand and that our

experience of the world is true now we

can be fooled obviously there are things

that fool us we can have an immediate

understanding of something I mean a good

example of that is the when we see the

Sun rise in the east and we see it go

down in the West and we talk about the

Sun moving across the sky that is that

is fitrah and it's intuitive and that's

really the basis of Sharia Shetty and

this works from a geocentric model if

you read the Quran it's very clearly

geocentric and that's the fifth or

understanding in reality it's very

possible and there are very very

powerful arguments that have been

postulated and then proven convincingly

that it only appears to be that it's

moving that in fact we're actually

moving around ourselves the earth is

spinning on around itself and then at

the same time it's moving in an orbit

around the Sun and so we're not really

seeing a sunrise we're seeing an earth

turn but nobody says what a beautiful

earth turn right because it's

counterintuitive even a scientist will

not say that because he he really has to

go against his fifth aura experience of

what's in front of them right like

Mullen s or a Dean since we're in Turkey

you know mullah now Sarah Dean this man

who he didn't like came to borrow his

donkey and he didn't want to lend him

his donkey so he said it's really too

bad my brother came yesterday and he he

borrowed he borrowed the donkey and so

the man said I'm sorry to hear that but

thanks anyway he starts to leave and

suddenly hears the donkey in the back of

the house start braying really loud and

he looks he said I thought you I thought

you said your brother borrowed the

donkey some will enough so the Dean said

who are you gonna believe me or the

donkey so who are you gonna believe you

know the scientists or your own senses

what you're experiencing right so the

beetles said it best the fool on the

hill sees the Sun going down and the

eyes in his head see the earth spinning

around and then the second is reason is

is judgment which is once you've have

concepts you can put those concepts

together by either affirming or negating

and this is called a subject and a

predicate in Arabic it's called mould

war and Mamun

so you la la la la is really a negation

and an assertion because what you're

saying is there is no God worthy of

worship there is only one true God so

small case G there is no God worthy of

worship other than the one true God so

you're making a negation it's neffie and

if bat and those are the two things

that the mind can do and it's sent there

in the Shahadah it's neffie and it's bad

that's a judgment you negate and you

assert and Eman is assertion it's toss

deep and that's why they call this in

Arabic to sodium they call it asserting

judgment making a judgment about

something and then finally reasoning

through argumentation or demonstration

so boron is a very high form there are

other ways to argue you can argue

poetically poets argue also you can

argue sophistical II you can argue

rhetorically you can appeal to people's

common sense but demonstration is the

most powerful form of argument so those

are the three operations of the mind and

that's really the subject of logic if

you get that you understand what what

logic is about it's about concepts which

involve definitions because you have to

understand something before you can

define it and then it's about making

judgments propositions which are either

assertions about something or negating

something about something and then the

benefit which is called the thumb rod is

very important because the the thumb is

the fruit it's what come what's what

what do you get from the knowledge like

a tree the purpose of a tree a fruit

bearing tree is the fruit that that's

really what everything that whole tree

is there to bring forth the fruit that's

the benefit to us is the fruit and so

what is the fruit of logic Nordy mahmoud

abbas adi and this is from the mustafa

he says logic is quote an introduction

to all knowledge and the one who has not

mastered it cannot be relied upon for

his knowledge at all its greatest

benefit so I mean that's a pretty pretty

powerful statement Imam al-ghazali is

busy arguing look if you don't

understand this science and he calls it

a propaedeutic science in other words a

science that must be studied before you

study other sciences

an introduction to all knowledge it's a

moped lima litter alone it's an

introduction to all knowledge and the

one who has not mastered it cannot be a

relied upon for his knowledge at all now

some people have criticized him for that

statement and have said well then what

are you saying the selleth they didn't

know logic he actually says in another

place that in the early period their

minds were clear their minds were clear

and they were able to understand things

to make judgments about things and to

reason and argue in ways that were sound

he said but people's minds weakened and

this is a common motif in many cultures

the Golden Age it's it's the idea and

they're actually recently there was an

article written that the ancients were

smarter didn't anybody see that article

was an interesting article just arguing

that that people are actually less smart

now than they were 2,000 years ago we

have more tools now but if you actually

look at the average people and if all

you have to do is read read Euthyphro

you know or Meno you know read Meno you

know we you know Socrates takes a young

servant boy and basically gets him to

understand the Pythagorean theorem very

quickly something that you know in our

culture people go through 12 years of

mathematics and they're hard pressed to

explain that so I mean obviously it's

arguable that they had a teacher like

Socrates it probably would have been a

lot easier so so he says that logic

became necessary because people lost

that ability to reason soundly its

greatest benefit then derives from the

clarity of thought and sound reasoning

skills it engenders in one trained in


are coupled with more effective oral and

written communication it orders thought

it orders the mind much of people's

problems come from our inability to

define things right this is the

foundation or that my definition is the

only definition and you know and through

the looking-glass Humpty Dumpty tells

Alice you know she questions his

definition of word and he says it can

mean whatever I say it means and and the

man that wrote that book was a logician

and and both Alice in Wonderland and

Alice Through the Looking Glass are

dealing with world a world without logic

like he was showing what a world would

be like if we didn't have logic or

reason working the queen says off with

his head and now we'll have the trial

right and Alice says that doesn't make

sense where I come from we have the

trial first and then and she said no

here we do it the other way around

okay modern America so and then that the

topics now topics and subjects are

almost in our culture considered

synonyms but traditionally subjects and

and this is like genus and species a

topic can be a subject and then a

subject can be a topic so but but you

you you can look at it like a subject is

the overarching rubric and then the

topics are those things that fall under

so if we look at like the topic of

Graham the subject of grammar is a

kilometer avi Minaya and Rob will be now

all right so that that's that's like

basically what now

is about right and and so if you look at

the topics of grammar then the topics of

grammar are like the motherfu ad so you

have seven more four ads the mom so bad

you have 15 months so bad the three

maharat right so those are basically

those are topics so the illume be he is

a topic under the rubric of grammar all

right and and so when you look at the

topics of logic the topics of minor or

formal logic so that's called minor or

formal logic the lesser logic logic

Petite consists of simple apprehensions

so the simple apprehension is the

grasping of something you just grasp it

like you know a glass you see if you

grasp a glass all right then

once you grasp what a glass is then you

can bring another type of glass like

this is a wine glass okay but the genus

is glass the species is wine glass

because the difference is this one's

used for wine I mean obviously we're in

Turkey so it's a water glass but you

know in Western culture this is a wine

glass but the idea of a glass is you

grasp it as a simple concept and once

you have that concept if I say go get a

glass you can go to the kitchen and you

it doesn't matter what kind of glass you

understand the universal concept of

glass that's a simple apprehension and

so that's one of the most important

topics and then the concept where we

begin to understand the tesora at a

deeper level right it's it's it's a type

it's a it's an apprehension but the

simple apprehension is a foundation of a

concept and then the terms how we

articulate those what words we use like

see the concept of a glass right I call

this a glass in English but if I said to

I'm judge Mojave

I'm Jed being a Libyan would say today

he is Raja right so now we have a zoo

jaga what's the difference between a zoo

jaja and a glass the difference between

a zoo judge and a glass is that we use

different terms for the same concept so

the concept is universal and that's why

the concept proceeds whatever

articulation we use to describe it or

define it all right and that's why we

can call this many things in many

different languages but every single

person whether he's Arab or Chinese or

Hindu or a Pakistani or it doesn't

matter once he grasped this it doesn't

matter what word that you used to

describe it I mean it matters in terms

of being able to communicate it to

somebody but he still grasps it in his


because I can say how do you say glass

in Turkish

where's Yusef is he here huh Bardock

yeah ba doc so if I say how do you say

glass in Turkish and he says ba doc how

lost he he knows the concept because if

I just said to him you know teru kataoka

he said baduk he doesn't even have no

glass in English I can get that out of

him okay so the concept of glass in your

mind is called baduk that same concept

in my mind is called glass so the

universal concept is the simple

apprehension the term is what's called

the wushu the lovely that we use because

you have Houdini was you the hockey team

that's illusion of how PAP was you then

he was you lovely we should copy how you

write it right so these are different

types of existence that things have and

then there's an argument about whether

it exists in reality in the mind or is

it only real here are they different

that's a metaphysical problem

and and then you have definitions so the

definition the HUD right the own ashati

is knowing what the genus and the

difference is that's how you define it

and that's not always easy because it's

sometimes it's hard to differentiate

between a property and or an accident

and a difference so but this is how you

learn to define things you see what

because we need definitions so when we

talk about governments government is a

genus but it has different species or

species so you have democracy is a

species of government tyranny is a

species of government oligarchy is a

species of government and each one of

them the genus is government but what's

the difference so a tyranny the

difference is it's it's it's it's

absolute rule by Fiat there's there's no

process they just say what what what

they're going to do and they do in and

they implement it and if you have a

dictatorship usually it's one a one

dictator so a dictatorship is where one

person has an absolute power and

arbitrary rule you could do whatever he

wants off with his head so though that's

the way you define things is by knowing

so that's an important aspect in the

topics of logic and then divisions how

you divide them so wine glass is the

type of division there's other types of

glasses that you have right and then Cup

Cup is is its from it the same genus but

it's different from a glass right has a

handle right Arabic does this all fit

Aloha does this because Arabs are very

specific about things right and then

they wouldn't call this a cus cus it

cuts has to have something in it so now

that's a whole other thing right when

you have the vessel and then when

something's in it you describe it with a

different word and that's that's modal

logic that's something really Aristotle

doesn't that came later

you know modal logic is where you get

modalities chain

and then you have judgments so that

study propositions are the kebaya


is a judgment right and then there are

varieties because there's different

types you have you know you have their

different quality and quantity and so

there are different types of

propositions and then you have simple

compound affirmative negative

categorical hypothetical and modal so

like a categorical is John is here

it's categorical it's re there it's true

or its false but it's categorical if

it's nine o'clock then John is here

that's a conditional or a hypothetical

so if a then B a therefore B like that

and then with modal logic it's more like

it might be possible that John's arrived

right so and that's and that or it's

probable that he's here because it's

nine o'clock so that's that's modal

logic it's also there's there's a

because they have deductive inductive

and then you have Charles pierce

identified a third what he called

abductive reasoning which is this type

of reasoning it's like it's a type of

almost guessing but it's guessing when

there's reason there's reason or cause

for a for a judgment like that so and

then you have opposition and that's

there's a square of opposition and it's

the relationship between propositions so

yeah you know a universal affirmative

proposition a universal negative

proposition they call that a and E from

a firm oh and neg oh right affirming

something or negating something so all

animals you know all men are animals

right no angels are animals so one's a

universal of

and the others Universal negative but

then you have some animals our man right

you have that and so that's a particular

a particular where you're affirming and

then you have a particular where you're

negating and so those are that that's

how they work together and there's rules

that go with that so that's when you

learn the square of opposition you learn

the rules of those the contradictory the

the contraries the sub alt all turns and

then you have conversion which is

converting a subject and a predicate

just converting it so no animals are men

or no no angels are animals no animals

are angels just switching them around

and some things can convert and some

things can't

so reasoning then is the PS and that

involves the syllogism and it's

divisions like you have nineteen forms

or figures in the I what are called

moves and so there's different types of

syllogisms they're broken down out of

the nineteen an edge medina POV

identified ten in the quran out of the

nineteen that are used she identified

ten of the different syllogisms that are

used so the Perron definitely uses

they're over thirty arguments in the

quran that are using this type of logic

which interesting enough in the earlier

shadi period some of the upshot he's

wanted to argue that it was a jazz that

the month up in the quran was a jazz but

belani said no that's not part of their

a jazz of quran because humans are

capable of reasoning in that same way so

he didn't consider it acceptable as a as

a miracle of the Quran to say that and

then finally you have induction which

was developed it was first argued by


and in his Novum organum organ on which

was an attempt to rewrite aristotle

organon he was an anti Aristotelian and

then later in the 17th century mill who

was a very very influential person had

in many ways very positive effect on

society but in other ways a very

negative effect very very really

probably one of the most influential

human beings in history but a lot of

what we are in now is is Mills vision of

the world so then you have material or

major logic and that deals with the

contents of syllogisms and involves

categories so that you have ten

categories and we'll get into those like

substance you have the category of

substance and everything has to be a

substance if it's a thing God is not in

the ten categories but everything that

exists is in the ten categories so the

first one is is is about the essence of

it it's it's the johar this is what they

called the Johar in the Arabic tradition

and then you have the the nine accidents

so you have the quality so it's a big

ball it's a little ball talk about the

size of it and then you have the the

sari the quantity and then you so that's

come and then you have cave and then you

have the time the place the possession

the position these are all the the

categories that things fall under and

how we talk about things and then you

have what are called the five arts sorry

the five predicate bowls that I'd follow

the hamsa in the Arabic tradition and

this is the genus the species the

difference the property and the accident

so the Arabs called it the jinns which

is genus same root Jin's and then you

had the new art you have the fossil you

have the hasa and then you had the Arab

and and then you had the the five arts

which are the the Sunna at their humps

these are the ways that we are

you so you have for instance Bora Han is

one type of argument that is used and

he'll do that the ISA Gogi goes into

this at the end and then another

argument is with the the majora bat

that's an argument like arguing from

experiment and things like that so you

have you have axioms you know things

that are agreed upon and then you

know you argue ha baba is an argument in

Sabah is an argument so logical

fallacies are ways that people argue and

those are in the five arts because

sophistical reasoning is a tie it's a

it's a fin people learn it lawyers learn

it they know how to use it there's books

on how to effectively trick people they

study them in if you get a degree in

marketing you'll learn all about that

and then the topics the topics the topos

are you know the things that we use in

argument and this is one of the six

books that the Organon was called the

topics and this involves working with

the five predicate bowls things like

compare and contrast it's related to

rhetoric in that way and then the ystem

dad when you look at the esteemed at

what the ystem that is is what does it

derive its sources from yes the midterm

in Asia what's the method of the science

you mid to who what what's what gives it

it's the flow right the you know the the

mid will Jessa in Arabic is this a meta

forest and dad met and Jessa you have

the ebb and the flow so the tide ebbs it

goes out and then the Med is it comes in

so method is a Sufi terminology as well

right so the what what's giving it its

method what's giving it its flow what's

what's what's coming to give it its

power and so logic does not derive its

sources from any other science

so for instance v derives its sources

from Quran Sunnah hadith right PS these

are the sources each man logic doesn't

drive its source from any other science

it is the singular introductory science

and its sources are observation and

intuition logic is basic tools are

intuited concepts and concomitant

propositions that stem from them

concepts involve the minds abstraction

of universals from particulates which

enables definition propositions involved

composing or separating concepts in a

subject predicate form upon which

judgment is based these two operations

of the mind are how we reason

deductively are inductively in the third

act of the mind argument or

demonstration these three mental

operations are the sources of logic

which is essentially an analytical

inquiry into these acts of the mind

which enable us to reason soundly and

avoid the pitfalls common to an

untrained mind its sources and

foundations such as the laws of identity


and the excluded middle are rooted in

self-evident truths that is any truth

the opposite of which is impossible to

conceive so in in for the Americans here

you know one of the American Creed's one

of our common notions in the United

States is that all men are created equal

right that's in the Constitution in the

Declaration of Independence but what

does he say before that we hold these

truths to be self-evident so what he's

saying is it's us common notion it's a

self-evident truth a self-evident truth

is something the opposite of which is

inconceivable that's a self-evident

truth so that's an that's probably more

of a piece of rhetoric because it's not

so self-evident you have to define those

terms what do you mean by equality

because people are clearly some people

are faster than other people some people

are stronger than other people some

people are taller

some people are lighter darker people

aren't the same so you're using a

mathematical cons

and you're applying it in a sociological

sense which is very problematic right

but we can understand something

intuitively for us it's much easier for

us to say that it's self-evident because

we've been taught certain things in the

modern world that a lot of pre-modern

peoples didn't have but the Prophet SAW

I sent I would argue is the first person

to actually argue that an S of silesia

as nan and mission I don't think you'll

find any any person in human history

before the Prophet I would challenge

somebody to do that to show me a quote

because Aristotle the greatest mind of

the ancient world arguably said there

are people that are natural slaves

because of their inferiority to other

people and women are naturally inferior

to men and that was Aristotle's opinion

which was held by many many people

educated people all over the world for

centuries but the prophet saw I sent him

said no people are equal but they're

also not equal so he meant they were

equal in the eyes of God as human beings

but they are unequal in what they do and

so we're created equal were born equal

but we don't grow up equal right there

are people that that are more beneficial

than others and the prophets Eliza them

said that Hydra comb Hydra comb right

he said Heydrich o Muhammad Allah I'm

Fatima Ali he the best of you and and

those most beloved to God are those that

are most beneficial to his creation to

his dependents which are all these

things that depend on God so that just

means creation really everything but

humans are first and foremost the

dependents of God that most things are

just here to sustain and so

the those three laws are the are these

are the axioms of logic if you if you

don't accept them or understand them

you'll never understand logic so the

first one is the law of identity and the

law of identity is very simple it's

things are what they are right a is a

and a is not not a right there's double

negative a is not not a in other words a

is a so a thing is what it is an

identity right is something that's

identical something else is the same

so identity is your sameness right so

I'm Jed is not aside then we can

differentiate between the two even

though they're brothers they're not the

same they're different and Amjad can't

be Assad than Assad can't be em yet

that's a law of identity the law of

non-contradiction is related to the law

of identity and the law of the excluded

middle is also related that in fact the

law of non-contradiction the law of the

excluded middle some will argue that

they're the same thing and just looking

at from two perspective but there is a

subtle difference between the two but

the law of non-contradiction is simply

that something cannot be and not be at

the same time right something cannot you

know I'm Jed cannot be on Jed and aside

at the same time he's either I'm Jo

Dory's Assad one or the other I'm sorry

to use you as an example but you're

right in front of me so that and then

the law of excluded middle is arguing

that there's not a middle position where

it can be you know it that it's it's

it's either a or it's not a it has to be

one or the other so in in these three

laws of thought this is the foundation

of logic these are axioms so this is the

ystem dad is from intuitive now one of

the things I mentioned last night was

about quantum physics and where the laws

of logic

they break down well there is a law

called the law of the inclusive middle

which is exemplified in certain aspects

of quantum mechanics and the law of the

inclusive middle is also a Buddhist

concept in the Nagarjuna logic which is

an Indian logic that came out of

Buddhism they will argue for the

included middle so something can be

something and not be that thing at the

same time so a light can act as a

particle and a wave particles and waves

are two different things because a wave

is more like a line and a particle is

more like a point right and a point is

not a line a line is made up of points

but it's not a point right so if

something is a point in a line at the

same time then you've got included

middle it's not an exclusive middle

because it's a thing and it's it's

something else at the same time the

Ishod e's use this law of the included

middle in some of their formations and

that's why when you talk about God God

transcends logic he's outside of the

categories and there are certain logical

things that even though we use logic in

theology there are certain things where

it breaks down and what an example of

that is that God is neither create and

neither connected nor disconnected from

his creation so the ashati and logicians

the ashati muta caddy moon say that

allah is a halo with the sanam be hunky

he will hate him false in a nun who he's

neither connected nor disconnected don't

put him in either of those and the

reason for that is because both of them

are problematic so they suspended that

judgment and said that it's neither nor

in this case which is breaks the law of

the excluded middle and the law of

non-contradiction because if we say God

is connected to his creation then what

we're saying is

that the corruptable is part of the

incorruptible or the divine because we

know that creation is by its very nature

corruptible whereas if we say that he's

disconnected then we have a separate

existence beside God so so they chose to

say he is neither connected nor

disconnected this is a super irrational

if you like we're renting to into the

room we're out of Newtonian physics and

we're into quantum physics this this is

a different and these are murajjab and

woods not everything works in logic

logic breaks down but it works in the

realm of Shetty it works in the realm of

cause-and-effect that's here in reality

the majority of Muslims historically did

not believe in cause and effect and this

is even Tamiya one of even tamiya´s real

problems with a shoddy kaanum is that

the Saudis were arguing that what in the

West is attributed to malabon she was a

French Metta physician and they called

occasional ISM Hume also hints at this

although he wasn't an occasional s but

he did argue that we cannot in any way

we cannot assume you know if I do that

intuitively we say that the force of

this acting on this created that sound

what Hume argues is that that's just an

assumption we've seen it so many times

that we assume you know if a then B so

if if this hits this we get the sound he

said that's actually a type of fallacy

this therefore that right the probe

there hoc fallacy so he argues that

that's just the mind does that right to

be fair to the Ashanti's they did argue

that by Shetty there is cause and effect

but in Hakata

there isn't so again at the Newtonian

level they were arguing for Newtonian

law so if you push somebody onto an

oncoming train you caused his death

and you can't say oh there's no

cause-and-effect God did that I'm just a

suburb right you can't make that

argument in an Islamic Shetty out court

no you caused his death but if we look

at it from the istikhara the fit of the

actual action is an action of God he

enabled and that's why tophi occurs when

he enables you to do good killed 11 is

winning and enables you to do bad and

what you're doing is the cusp

so you're acquiring that so this is this

is the way our scholars interpreted and

arguably most of modern physics would

probably argue they're moving towards

that worldview cause and effect in fact

if anybody was following the accelerator

events that happened in burnin in

Switzerland did anybody follow that

right where they're actually seeing

these particles faster than the speed of

light I mean they're basically arguing

we're gonna have to throw cause and

effect out the window if this proves to

be true and they've replicated the

experiment several times so they're

really I mean they're saying it's

undermining so many of their principles

but primarily cause and effect so you

know but cause and effect is the realm

of Sharia but in how pika

most of our scholars argued that there

is no cause and effect there it only

appears that way that in reality every

act is an instantaneous creation whether

you're part of Yoruba Cikini when we

through who you're part of it's asking

if in the hula hope you wash up

hallelujah ba ba ba don't say that the

knife cuts don't say that the fire burns

because that there should be an

intermediary between God's actions and

the action itself the those of innermost

understanding deny that they say it's

impossible so this is an argument that

basically I mean we're getting into

theology a little bit but it's all

related this is the thing I mean we you

know in in the West they've recently

discovered what they call

interdisciplinary studies right

I mean Muslims were never they didn't

have separate disciplines in that way

they saw they had a unified

understanding of knowledge it's a

holistic understanding that all of these

knowledge is relate to each other but

they have what is is better called

transdisciplinary as opposed to

interdisciplinary it transcends the

separateness of these disciplines and

recognizes the interdependence of these

disciplines that that that they're all

really hovering around the same thing

which is existence I mean all everything

because logic is just about existence

it's we're talking about the world

that's why we use logic we're talking

about things in the world so it's all

about metaphysics in the end and

metaphysics you know the great questions

of metaphysics why is there a world

where did the world come from what are

we supposed to do while we're here in

the world and given that we see that the

world ends ie we end I mean the world

might go on but as far as we're

concerned we're gone what happens after

we go if anything these are metaphysical

questions and these are the only real

questions in the world all the other

things you know gee the price of

tomatoes what do you think about that I

mean that is not serious in the light of

your mortality right you know

you think the Yankees are gonna win this

year that is not a really important

question in the scheme of things but

these are the things that people

preoccupy themselves from the big

questions by being obsessed with the

little questions right small-mindedness

and then finally know we've got a few

more the founder and while there the

founder of something is the one that

posited it first and there you know

what's interesting is we had books well

he nodded and asked it he wrote a book

called Keith havin a lion which is a

book of all the first things that

happened like who you know who started

grammar like one day somebody was

sitting around thinking you know we say

these things and why are they in the

order that they're in and what's the

difference between this thing that we're

saying and this thing you know Oh hmm

this one relates to time whereas this

one doesn't

I mean somebody came up with these

things at some point reflected on them

and thought about them I mean Euclid if

you study Euclid it's where did he get

those ideas like whoa where why did they

start thinking about these thing where

did the Pythagorean theorem come from I

mean how did they work that out how did

that how did they how did they work out

the universal law of gravity I mean what

is that like an apple fell on his head

and that's it

I mean how did that well you know just

amazing insights so who's the first one

reasoning is elemental to the human

condition I mean people have been

reasoning as long as we've been here

thinking we're rational beings reasoning

is elemental the human kitchen we're all

gifted naturally with the powers of

reason that govern our action

everybody's doing things for reasons I'm

going to Turkey to study

I'm going to Turkey to have a good time

I'm going to Turkey to see the Topkapi

I'm going to Turkey to find a manuscript

I'm going to Turkey to visit Oh Elly I'm

going to Turkey to get married right

people go to places for reasons and if

they don't there we say they're nuts

like why are you here if you don't know

where you're going any road will get you

there why are you here

you know I'm I'm still thinking about it

haven't worked it out I'm that you can

be in that place as well I'm here

because my mom told me to come and

that's a reason your mom had a reason

you might not or your reason is you're

just being a good Muslim you know doing

what your mom said that's a reason so

according to Muslim sources logic as a

codified science was first developed by

the ancients and remained latent in

other words they hid it from people so

when you read the Muslim early Muslim

books of logic that's what they argue

that they kept it it was too dangerous

to teach people because it can be used

for good and evil

it's a dangerous art in that way because

it's a it's a powerful tool and if you

have this tool you can do a lot of good

with it but you can do a lot of evil and

sophis master this Sophists are our

masters of certain elements that are

found in this science and then Aristotle

who died in 322 I think he's born around

384 Aristotle recorded its rules to find

his terms and revealed its secrets he's

called Aristotle ease or at a stall

right in the Greek tradition he wrote

the six books known collectively as the

organ on which means the tool the Allah

and they're considered the first books

on logic and thus he is typically

considered the founder or the first

teacher of logic so he wrote this

organon that had this the categories the

ten categories he defines those and as a

book on interpretation de interpretación

a and then he's got the prior analytics

the posterior analytics he's got the

topics and then he's got the on

sophistical reasoning like how you can

argue the fallacies so in the Islamic

tradition and Farabi who dies in 961 or

350 and Hadera is considered the second

teacher they call them and Marana

Matheny and then Farabi was a great

intellect to a truly great intellect he

was he was once asked and there's

there's some humility but it's argue

that there's not a whole lot but he was

asked if if he would have had he been

alive at the time Aristotle would would

have he surpassed Aristotle he said no

but I would have been his best student

so so he basically introduced logic he

studied it here in Turkey and he

actually when he arrived in Holub he

arrived wearing Turkish clothes

Byzantine clothes this actually a

Turkish hat by the way this was a

Byzantine hat that the Muslims adopted

after they conquered Constantinople so

the fast they caught the fast in Morocco

the fast actually spread from Turkey but

anyway he he he went to to Aleppo and he

spoke 70 languages he was a master of

music he knew all the Mohammed and I

have a friend of mine from Nubia who's

Egyptian some you might know him but

Hamza Aladeen he was a good player

brilliant musician but he knew he knew

the mama likey - least he gave me the

book of Al Farabi because al música

kitab-o-moosa al kabir the big music

book and it's like it's this thick it's

the biggest book in my library single

book but he gave me that book and it's

all the Mohammed's

and in there are the secrets of music

the the which they used to use here in

Anatolia and and they still do as five

her dear still in Turkey people that

know the science of healing through

musical instruments the using the

Mohammed and they do this also in in

Morocco in there were Mary stands in

Andalusia Morocco Iraq where they would

treat people from with their mental

diseases they would treat them using

mom's to to try to re harmonize the

imbalances in the body through sound

because sound has an effect and this is

why people move when they when they hear

sound you know you have a startled

movement because it affects you the

sound affects you so sound is very

powerful which is why the code is so

powerful because the these are sacred

sounds that are affecting resonating in

you and that's why doing them either

even silent dhikr is is has that effect

also so anyway and Farabi when he went

to to Hannah

they came in and somebody you know they

were there a bunch of aluminum out there

they used to have the much this and the

ruler there was there and he asked him

if he knew anything no he he was he was

sitting in and one of the servants spoke

a dialect and he couldn't understand

what the ruler was saying and so Farabi

explained it to the servant and he said

oh do you do you speak their diet their

tongue and he said see who said they're

in Aloha

I can speak 70 languages and he said

Jesse no Shannon at arabiya

you know something about Arabic he said

you know test me out

and so the grammarian started talking to

him and finally they just said he's he's

ahead of all of us and then they fit

Papa has said you know and then he asked

him do you know anything about music he

said bring me a note so they brought him

in and

then he played til they all laughed and

then he played till they all cried and

then he put them to sleep so he knew and

which is one of the reasons why you know

Plato warned about music in the Republic

because of its effects on the soul and

some of the automatic prohibit music

argue it's because of the effects that

it has it's it's it's called te matua

Satyan which is not the thing in and of

itself but what the effects of the thing

and most musicians don't know what

they're doing how they're affecting

people's souls

so some music will drive people mad and

it's clear if you just see certain

concerts how people start behaving it's

the music that's doing it to them and

they might like it because it's a

Dionysian experience it's very ecstatic

and wild and out of the body but often

aided and abetted with illegal

substances but nonetheless it's very

dangerous and if you change the modes of

music you'll affect the whole culture so

great ships and culture happened when

musical shifts occur according to that

theory ethos theory

so later even Cena who died in 428 1037

attempted to provide for the Muslim

world what Aristotle did for the

Hellenic civilization and encyclopedic

work covering logic natural science

mathematics the metaphysics but and then

he the lot he wrote a book called the

Shiva which is very similar to the organ

on he has a section on the Iliad which

is theology and but it's basically an

organ on of logic and that key became

the basis for Arabic logic it has some

differences in its metaphysical

assumptions after mastering even Cena's

work Imam al-ghazali removed what he

deemed any objection 'el aspects of it

and then he wrote five works of varying

levels of difficulty

so America's Adi wrote these books on

logic to help students and I think the

most interesting of them is called it

estas and mu stopping which is where he

argues against a botany person and

esotericist he argues that the way you

judge is not through the imam assume

like some hidden occultic knowledge that

a teacher has but the way you judge is

is using the Crispus on mustaqim that he

says is in the quran and so he shows how

the Quran teaches you logic so he uses

that book as a book of logic but it's

only from the Quran a very interesting

book its relationship to other Sciences

its relation to other Sciences is that

of a universal to a particular as all

other Sciences are comprised of concepts

propositions and arguments so every

science has concepts you study grammar

there's concepts the verb is a concept

in grammar it has a definition right the

noun is a concept and then propositions

there are propositions in any science

and then there's reasoning also so you

make arguments based on your terms and

on your and on your propositions the

virtue and the right and it's called in

the West they call that liberal arts a

liberal art according to Aristotle a

liberal person a free man is somebody

who lives for his own sake a slave lives

for another sake which is why if your ad

the law you live for the sake of Allah

but if you're free to other people

you're not living for their sake you're

a free man in that way and and so the

the liberal arts are arts that are

studied for their own sake they're not

studied for like a vocational art so you

study some arts for others sake so

Aristotle and the Muslims would later

take this categorization have they have

productive arts practical arts and then

they have theoretical arts so the

productive arts are

things like carpentry you learn how to

make things that's a that's a productive

art and then you have the practical arts

that are beneficial like politics and

ethics or medicine right and then you

have the theoretical and he and in in

the modern world because of not

philosophical pragmatism but because of

moral pragmatism you know or or sorry

sociological pragmatism theoretical

sciences are seen really as a waste of

time but the ancients put them first and

foremost the highest Sciences were those

that were for their own sake like

theology it's it's not it's not studied

as a practical or a productive art it's

studied to know fandom no phanom right

know that there's no god but Allah just

know that I mean obviously there's

benefits but in essence it's to know

because you were created to know Maha

doctoring so agenda Eleni I'll go to an

eight Li a typhoon come apart even our

best to know me and to know him is to

love him and to love him is to worship

Him so in in the in the Muslim world

they were called illumined Anna the

instrumental arts these are arts that

help you understand and then you have

father to who or shut off ahora Tibet -

who all three are used the the the

virtue and rank is its rank in relation

to other Sciences and this is important

in terms of the hierarchical nature of

science Marathi balloon that we have

marked Tibet we are Marathi below Jude

Marathi balloon there-there's degrees of

knowledge and alumina silica and Monahan

I ask you for beneficial knowledge right

and in the Mayan felony the prophets

sought refuge in knowledge --is that

were not beneficial and then what's the

most beneficial knowledge the Omaha PI

you do some for war well I saw wound

to be hushirat that was the traditional

hierarchical nature of knowledge aha

Mahalo a kite the most important are

right thinking and then the next

metaphor what right action right

behavior how to behave properly from

meta so wolf right states were added to

be hushirat and a tool that you begin

with grammar logic and rhetoric so you

need those tools to begin the most

important obviously is via so given its

Universal benefit visa via other

Sciences logic is an overarching science

its subject matter concepts propositions

and arguments is integral to every other

science hence scholars have always

considered it a necessary propaedeutic

science and a means to sound knowledge

well as ends other sciences surpass

logic and rank so in terms of ends other

sciences are more important but in terms

of means it's one of the most important

so logic and rank its supreme virtue is

as a means that ensures intellectual

rigor in the pursuit of knowledge the

hokum ashada

is the final the legal category the

opinions of scholars can be categorized

as to those who consider the study of

logic Minh Dube recommended permitted

jazz or MOBA 3 a collective obligation

for casaya

and finally muharram prohibited the

first opinion recommended is that of

most theologians and legal theorists the

old Saudi scholars so the most kennyman

and little suebian

most of them argued that it was men do

and many of jurors including imam

al-ghazali according to one narration

even out of the great monarchy jurors

from tunis and OB great monarchy jurist

a Sanusi great monarchy jurist and this

is the sound disappear so according to

most scholars the second opinion is that

logic is permissible for those whose

intellect is sound and who have

knowledge of the book and the sooner

this is the opinion of Tuffy

Sukie he great chatty scholar from Syria

died in 7:56 1355 and the third opinion

is that it is an obligation this is the

opinion of ultimate act Annie they had

fought Aberdeen at foe pani he lived in

the room over him and they had Dean

attacked Annie so they were they were

both in teachers in the same madrasa and

they were both logicians so he

considered him watching as mentioned by

a jury and as our Connie in the chapter

on jihad because they always deal with

the Frederica fire in the chapters on

jihad some argued that the obligation

was individual because sound knowledge

of God relies upon sound reasoning and

others said it was collective because

the religion is made safe by protecting

its beliefs and that has to be done

through the use of reasoned this is the

opinion of Imam Lucy who he's called the

Ghazali of the West he was a great great

Moroccan scholar died in 1650 or 1060

Hadera and then of Imam al-ghazali and

is yeah so Imam al-ghazali there appears

to be two different opinions but given

how much emphasis he put on it it's

arguable that he saw it as a

failure for people that were working in

either Kalam or all salute film the

fourth opinion held by such formal

scholars is even Salah Imam and Noah we

Seop and even Samia is that

preoccupation with logic is prohibited

however our scholars concluded that what

they were actually prohibiting was not

logic per se but rather philosophical

logic specifically the metaphysical

foundations of it and the false

conclusions derived from them on the

contrary logic is none other than the

grammar of thought that's what they

called it Imam al-ghazali calls it the

now a knockin it's the grammar of the


just like now is the grammar of the

tongue he said it is to the intellect

what grammar is to the tongue and

furthermore and also our scholars

codified it and purified it of any

ungrounded epistemic speculations

contained in philosophical logic

furthermore given that the cause of the

prohibition was removed the effect

became null and void so the reason being

that in a legal ruling based on

Scholastic opinion a cause cannot be

disassociated from an effect in its

presence in its absence so in in the

Sharia and in the to to doodle and

manually Rubin were Adam and this is a

Qaeda and so when when the reason for

the thing is there the hokum is there

when the reason is no longer there the

ruling is no longer there so the reason

for its prohibition was philosophical

speculation if there's logic without

philosophical speculation then it gets

removed now I would argue and this is

for whatever it's worth my two cents I

would argue that for Part C for Western

students and people that are exposed to

a lot of these ideas that are out there

and their formidable ideas

post-modernism is real the academia is

filled with philosophical and

epistemological assumptions one of the

things that you'll find if you go into

studies in any of the social sciences or

Islamic studies for instance you'll find

that nominalism is the dominant approach

to their epistemology they do not

believe in essences anymore they don't

believe that human nature has an essence

which is why homosexuality is viewed you

know the dominant theory is a bundle

theory of human beings that were just a

bundle of contradictions neuroplasticity

that we move in and out of states that

we have no fixed essence there's it's

all accidents right so these are these

are ideas that you're going to be

confronted with in your life and you

might not be able to identify them

because you haven't studied them but

that you're being affected by them and

so I would argue that the enema today if

they really understood what was going on

and unfortunately a lot of our own AMA

there we have different types but the

majority of our

are just trying to hold on to to this

tradition as best they can and they're

not really engaging the intellectual

ideas of the world but one of the

obligations of scholars is rubbish

abides you cannot make a you know you

cannot deal with obfuscation 'z with all

of these philosophical problems if you

don't understand them I don't want to

hear somebody who has a degree in Shetty

I give me a legal ruling about evolution

I don't want to hear them do that I want

somebody who knows Islamic theology

really well and who knows evolutionary

biology really well at a very high level

I want to hear their opinion Imam

al-ghazali before he made judgments

about the philosophers he wrote a book

called Mufasa that a philosopher it's

it's a pretty neutral book he bases you

so here's what they say it was kind of

like during his time it would be like

philosophy for dummies and a lot of

other 'mo were really upset with him

because he made philosophy so clear that

even common people could understand it

so and these books for dummies are

written by experts in those fields very

often but what he did was he followed

that up with to half of them philosophy

so what he did first he showed them look

I know what you're talking about

here's why you're wrong we just say

here's why you're wrong

I don't really know what you're talking

about but here's why you're wrong that

that's the modern approach so we get

people you know and then we have people

that grapple with these issues and

unfortunately they evolve in the public

space sometimes we had a young scholar

from England who caused a bit of a stir

by saying he believed in evolution and

but he was a physicist you know he's

trained in the highest levels of science

and this in I'm talking about the West

in the Western which is now globalized

here as well it's everywhere and he had

some background in Islamic Sciences and

he's grappling with these issues I don't

think you should grapple with them in

the public space because people you

shake up common people you cause

problems and I think there's better ways

of doing that but these are problems of

our time and to simply just write them

off and not deal with them not

understand them

it's hard enough though to be fair it's

hard enough just to learn this tradition

on its own let alone learn another

tradition and that's why we really need

people of HT HOD people that are willing

to really struggle hard and work hard

too so that they can understand these

issues and and and provide guidance for

people because a lot of people are

confused we have lots of young Muslims

confused about evolution because they

study it and it's taught us fact you

know and you know like there's a man

here in Turkey that writes all these

books about evolution but they're not

going they're not going to convince

somebody at Cambridge or Harvard or I

mean they might be useful for simple

people that you're trying to protect

there's probably some validity to that

approach but in terms of really

grappling with these problems you need

really trained intellects and logic is

one of the tools that you need to be

fortified with and arguably symbolic

logic as well because that's very much

in the arsenal of the enemy any


so I could can you repeat the Muslim

understanding of transdisciplinary

knowledge and how we understand the

categories as opposed to and how it all

kind of this term that came from Piaget

back in the 70s

I like the IJ he's famous child

psychologist because I tested some of

these things on my own kids at the

appropriate age and they didn't work so

I know not totally convinced but he had

this idea of the holistic nature of

knowledge and transdisciplinary approach

is an approach that transcends the idea

of separateness in these so

interdisciplinary is working within

between disciplines so you

interdisciplinary studies will utilize

the tools of historical methodology you

know a sociological methodology might

bring in some of the hard sciences this

interdisciplinary transdisciplinary is

really recognizing that there is a meta

discipline that involves a holistic

understanding of the relationship of

knowledge --is that knowledge azar

related to each other

and this is this is extremely important

because Muslims really saw all knowledge

as facets on a diamond the diamond was

one and they really understood and

that's why when you get into later

scholastic tradition in Islam a good

example of that is Imam at about Judy

he's he's bringing in logic rhetoric

grammar theology fit it's all in one

book the book is primarily on logic or

or hadith or I mean he wrote on many

subjects he was mostly a wrote glosses

on other works but he's late tradition

so he had all the tools of the entire

tradition and you see that he's using

them all in a holistic approach and he

brings our old Intuit prosody and

amazing and and and so they didn't see

they saw all of these as working

together for enlightenment

that these were all tools for one thing

which is madatha and and and they were

all helpful towards that end is that is

that clear

why they don't believe in cause and

effect in the Ashanti school the reason

is because cause and effect if if we

accept that I can cause something or

that this can cause something that I am

giving this some kind of intrinsic power

and if I give it intrinsic power then

I'm giving something that is God's alone

la haula

well quwata illa billah' I'm giving

something that is intrinsically God's

alone and I'm attributing it to a

created thing and in that way it's a

type of it's sugarless about and so

what they argued was that in every

instant it's a new creation that home

feel absent Malkin jadeed in every

instant it's a new creation so to give

you a modern metaphor to understand this

if you've ever been in a theater when

the projector breaks down has anybody

ever had that experience when the

projector breaks down okay

now you have digital so it just all goes

crazy but in in the old days if you're

old enough to remember when they

actually had film what happens is

suddenly the frames you see the still

frames now between those still frames is

a dark space what happens is the the

projector is going so fast that it

appears to be a linear movement but in

reality their individual frames that are

frozen moving at a very fast speed

was called a magic lantern it was

invented in France and this is the

beginning of cinema and we little kids

if you ever did those little papers

where you draw the little stick men and

and then you flip them real fast and it

makes it kids love that because what

they're seeing is what it's an optical

illusion and the optical illusion is of

sync when Shiell linearity a moves to B

moves to C and it's a succession of

events according to the the dominant

opinion of the a shot ease what happens

is it's actually an on-off cycle and so

Allah is creating and destroying it's an

on/off so the that he's creating it in

each I mean we can't even say nanosecond

because we don't know that whatever time

that is it's some type of time but it's

so fast that it creates the illusion

that we feel like we're moving around

but in reality it's just one creation

and then it stops and then it's again

and then it stops so we're like those

stick men and Allah is making the thing

happen so when when the knife cuts it's

not really cutting Allah is creating an

opening so the knife is just a suburb

it's Allah who's actually recreating the

thing anew but now it's opening and then

blood and then so if you could see it if

if you had a you know what what what

Imam and Junaid called Fenna

you know annihilation if you had that

moment you'd go on to an on-off cycle

and you'd see that nothing exists that's

annihilation where you see that nothing

exists except Allah and that's why he's

a higher volume he's sustaining the

whole thing and that let her loose in

attune when unknown because if he if if

a moment of

of hafla took God the whole thing would

just disappear so his pal Mia you know

in one of the doors you know Hatta

Arafah you me Atticus Arrieta Fiji me

and maracas you know let me see your pal

Mia that's happening in every instant in

creation that Imam Ali said Mara yo

Shannon Laura it's Allah comin over

Wahiawa Bardo who I never saw anything

except I saw God in it before it in and

and after it meaning that he saw that

it's God that's doing all of this in

every instant and and and that's that is

what the position that most of the

scholars took which is arguably from

spiritual experiences that they had I

mean I find that very hard to believe in

a book on the atomic theory in history

which was written by a scholar from

England he argues that the Muslim atomic

theory is unique in the history of

civilization that nobody really came up

with that type of atomic theory before

and it's arguable that there's certain

theories now like string theory they're

very similar to to that type of

understand they're trying to work this

out there trying to get some theory of

everything that's going to explain these

four forces and how they interact and

but they don't have it because the

theory of everything is God you know and

if you're denying him how are you gonna

see him so go ahead

what's your name Cameron uh-huh sorry

come um I reckon yesterday you talked

about to define something you need to

conceptualize it right and I think the

Arabic word you use is the solver so

then how would we define God if we can't

conceptualize him and does everybody's

conceptualization differ yeah that's a

really good question the you know the

definition of God you can't put God in a

genus and you can't put them in a

species and that's why in the end our we

can't define God and and therefore we

use negative things so the argument

about is this called the via negativa in

the Latin tradition scholastic tradition

the Muslims call it the salvia right so

he has she fattest salvia the attributes

that negate the opposite so wushu does a

FIFA Neff SIA and that's why you judo at

wushu dine and mowjood and we'll get

into that when we get into the

categories and I'll explain that but

it's a good question so we don't we

don't we you know we can define God in

terms of our limited understanding of

how God has spoken about himself and

there's also rational definitions like a

Tamil Stephanie on it cool what coolin

moved to Peru aleyhi I mean that's one

definition the 20 attributes that you're

learning in Arpita is is another way of

really defining God but if you really

break it down it's working around what

is undefinable and that's why cool

mahaprabhu Vatika although he left with

Attica everything that occurs to the

mind God is other than that and so we

cannot in reality define Allah other

than how he has described himself so we

use our awesome and not had really the

descriptions that God has given us that

he is that he is fine that he is valued

that he is a party that he's a Lennie

that he's a Jabbar that he's medical

caduceus Raman

Mahima NIM how can we know him well in

the same way that there are things that

that you can grasp right without

definition so there are there are ways

of understanding God and grasping God

but in the end you'll you'll never know

his essence his essence is completely

unknowable and the only way you can know

him is through his see fat and the fat

in the end are our the the our scholars

don't use the term accident for God

because when we get into categories you

understand why but to see fats in

relation to that that are like the

vanilla hand method Ilana

they're like the accidents in relation

to the to their essence mm-hmm so I'm

like following from your previous

differentiation between concepts names

and subjects can a person believe in the

concept of God without using the name of

God or knowing that the subject of the

concept in which they believe in is God

I mean here you have people who say they

don't believe in God and you ask them

yeah do you believe in something and it

pretty much same yeah it's a good again

we get back to what you know what was

just talked about that when you say the

concept of God in reality we don't have

a concept of God we don't have a tussle

water what we have is a type of

understanding right there's a type of

modifier that we have and and that

modify has degrees at the most basic

level it's a man which is toss deal so

we know that that God is rajababu Jude

and and Rajeev is a concept who Jude as

a concept and that's why we know God

analogically like Allah SWA notices

LASIK Amitha t he shade

well who was Samia and bossy oh there

there is nothing like God so don't any

tough so what do you have got as other

than that and then it says and that was

called is Steph and yet and yet he hears

and he sees so how do we know hearing

and seeing

we know hearing and seeing because we

have hearing and seeing well via unfussy

comb after that tops your own in your

own selves don't you see so we can

conceptualize hearing and seeing but

when we relate that hearing and seeing

to God we have to get rid of any

conceptualization that it's like our

hearing and seeing LASIK emitted ishe so

there's no touch be in reality but you

know you have tangia and touch via but

you need to be to approximate this is

called terrible mani to approximate the

meanings alright so if somebody says I

don't believe in God

first you you need to define what they

don't believe in so you can say I don't

believe in this God that came down and

died for our sins you could say well I

don't believe in that God either so

we're both atheists of that God right

and then we can discuss other

understandings right but in the end we

you know alone RC Athena and I can't

accommodate an f ck we can't ever say

what you are we but we can only say what

you said about yourself go to Allah who

I had a low summit let me I did what I'm

you don't want to be kuku fauna had our

scholars say that negates the eight ways

that people fall in to shirk so those

are all negative approaches to God they

negate concepts of God who Allah who I

had that negates the concept that God is

plural or that he's composite right one

is not a number and this is one of

Euclid's in book in one of his books I

think it's book seven he says that that


it is that thing which we call one

that's a unit that's a Wagga and then he

said number is a multitude of units so

one is not a number every number is a

multiple of one but one is not a number

so when we talk about God we're saying

that he is one and that's negating Petra

and to add dude it negates the idea that

he's composite that he's made up of

parts so he's a simple reality simple I

mean by that there's no parts it's

infinite simplicity there's it's pure

oneness and then allow some odd that

negates the haja if T as knucks it

negates deficiency and ie so it negates

we can't conceive of God as needing

anything or having any blemishes

he's salam he's perfect sad in one

minute are you and then lemmya did what

amulet that negates Elna when luleå it

negates cause and effect

nothing caused God and God is not the

cause of anything in a cause-and-effect

relationship in other words that cause

and effect cannot be separated right so

we can't one of the things Aristotle his

problem with God he called him the prime

mover because he said that God is the

uncaused cause of all existence so we

say that God is the cause of existence

but we say it Maja's on we say it to say

that he's not not a cause do you see I

mean these are these are you were

getting into advance Kadam and it's you

know you really need a lot of

preparation to get into into these

concepts but God says being it is an

American failure kunu that fight is not

suburbia if it was suburbia it would be


he says kun fea Kuno be and it is so

there's no there's no God is is not

interacting in his creation in a cause

and effectual way in that way that

things are interacting with other things

in a cause-and-effect way Julia and then

when I'm your Kula Hawk of one I had Yin

fee a Shiva one of the year you know

that he could have shabeeha no not via

that he has a likeness or an opposite so

the devil in you know if you get into a

hora Mazda a hairy man and a hora Mazda

and do dual dualistic thinking the devil

is seen as a another of God you know

that there's a dark God and a light god

that's a dualistic Manichaean thinking

that's negated by that

so the pululahua had is the the via

negativa of our tradition it is the it

yes leave oh and you know and what Kufra

samanya it negates those eight types of

Kufa and that's why ever really

understands if Klaus understands so he'd

at least in at that level does that help

yeah it's is that valid though if the

person even believes in God or believes

in the concept in the way that you you

have described it but they don't know

what to be God that I mean is that

designation a lot to judge you know I

can't we can't you know what is doomed

wants them to be Aquabats like one of

the anonymous said you were said to call

people not to judge people only a lot

can judge people you know I can't I mean

if somebody is born into a house and

there's a little kid and they're

molested from the time they're like two

years old or something like that and and

they're so messed up and they end up on

drugs and and you know crack cocaine or

whatever I mean I'm not gonna judge that

person I mean that's for God to judge

that but I'm not gonna judge that person

you know so we're living in a world


the Sharia is judges if you're a father

you have to judge but the party should

judge with fear and trepidation and

that's why the Prophet said two parties

in hell one in Jena you should judge

with fear and trepidation so you know we

don't know people say they're atheists I

don't know what that means I don't know

what that means I don't know how what

led them to that point and what how

God's going to judge them one of the

things that I find interesting about

atheists and I think this has to be

appreciated by somehow is that they do

more thicker than God than most

believers and they just think about God

all the time

they write books about God every

conversation you get in with an atheist

within two minutes they're talking about

God it's amazing they just they're just

obsessed with God and in some ways their

opinion of God is so high that they end

up disbelieving in him you know it's

like if their opinion is so high that

they I can't believe in God I can't

believe in a God that will allow

pedophilia I can't believe in a guy you

know this these are the arguments along

to use it and who is it for me to say

that's a that's rubbish you're just

saying that you know there's certain you

know the cheese-and-cracker crowd you

know I mean you know having their wine

and you know I dunno how these people

can believe in God you know

really quite absurd they're imaginary

friends you know you know that kind of

there's a certain arrogance of those

type people but some of them people in

the greatest tribulation are are the

biggest believers I mean that's what's

so amazing about people in really

difficult dire circumstances and yet

they don't give up their faith in God

and they believe in a lots of behind

with data so you know there's there's

it's just not for us to judge people you

know and people can move in and out of

faith you know what you shouldn't feel

so secure about your faith you should

ask Allah for us to know ha tema and be

concerned about that I mean there's

Christians that have lost their faith

that's why these Christians say I asked

a Muslim they always doubt whether

they're going to heaven or not they

don't know but we know we're going to

heaven you don't know where there's

Christians that ended up leaving

Christianity becoming atheists Bart

Ehrman you know writing books why it's

not true and they were devout

fundamentalist Christians so people can

lose their faith Muslims lose their

faith there's people that lose their

faith in Islam you know but why and what

are the reasons and what led up to that

I don't know I mean there's people that

drive people out of Islam to prove its

allies that I'm said that he was the

advocate for the dimi that was

mistreated ano moppy amma like he's

gonna be his lawyer with god to say he

didn't he didn't see the real Islam he

was mistreated by Muslims he said that

on a huh small man other than me and

you'll know qiyama

I'm the advocate of a vim me on the day

of judgment so he's gonna actually say

don't judge him the way you would judge

somebody else cuz what happened to him

was it right so there's going to be

people in Mahmoud Abbas Adi says that if

Islam was presented in a distorted way

and somebody rejects it they're not

rejecting true Islam they're rejecting a

distortion and he says that he didn't

think they'd be taken to account for

that he says that and fights with a

taffeta cloud so

all right so any other questions I

didn't I've been kind of it's not when I

come I'm not sure if I've understood the

negatives but how would you then

reconcile for example what God says

about himself in terms of his

omnipotence and certain negatives for

example he cannot lie well like I said

what you have to what you have to

understand is that you can you can

conceptualize attributes but you can't

conceptualize the essence so we can have

a conceptualization of attributes of God

like we can conceptualize power but then

we have to recognize that that power is

not like our power but but the essence

of God you can't conceptualize it and

you can't define without conceptualizing

in essence and in that way the

definitions of God are all negative

definitions the work I think dr. Cleary

I mean dr. winter one of his contentions

is that theology is the search for the

least silly definition of God 22:22

yeah theology is the quest for the least

silly definition of God so I mean he's

pretty much saying the same thing that

we you know we define God but in the end

we're defining the undefinable so you

just always have to keep that in mind

that the Qaeda is leisa committed he che

that's the foundation of all Islamic

theology there's nothing like God

so his knowledge is not like our

knowledge but we have some approximation

of what that means because we have

knowledge like he put his attributes in

us in a limited temporal way we have

divine attributes speaking Kalam yada

some besar these are these are divine

attributes of God but there are only

approximations to for us to get a hint

at what that means

even the arkarow all the descriptions of

paradise in the Quran even a bath said

they said the Quran in the lace

virginity minute duniya Allah as smell

the only thing in paradise that's the

same as this world is the names so he's

saying the same thing even about the

creation of paradise it's male I know

and rats what are the known seminars

what I hopped on a puppy pusher jenna is

what no eye has seen no ear has heard

and no thought has ever been

conceptualized in the mind of a human if

that's about paradise then what is God

and that's just that's another creation

and we still can't conceive of it I was

guinness sorry kosher so based on this

logic is the tool by which we study all

the other sciences but it doesn't work

for Peter or we don't use it I mean much

about Peter laid our peda is it uses

logic a lot I mean for instance the

there are different bara Hien for the

existence of God the quran uses logic it

uses you know

ronita manor is a proof that God uses in

the Quran Borana topic for instance the

the idea that God is uncreated that you

can't have an infinite regress the

argument from contingency these are all

logical arguments and they're studied in

syllogistic form in the Muslim

scholastic tradition and they're you

know I mean most philosophers in the

West after Conte will argue that to use

a very hackneyed academic statement that

you can't really define you you can't

you can't prove the existence of God I

mean that's pretty much that's one of

Kant's arguments that you can't prove it

and that's even Tamia's argument as well

he argued against using logic with God

he just said it's waste of time and in

that way he's very content or can't it's

very tiny in or something like that so

but for me these are fifth oral

arguments the idea that something can

come from nothing is intuitively so it's

so against our fifth nature and so even

though quantum physics is trying to make

this argument now and there's people

like Stephen Hawking that are obsessed

with this and there's a recent slew of

books that have been written on this

subject that we've finally proven that

the universe can come from nothing you

know I don't know Allah says in surah

that calf that we didn't show you the

creation the beginning of it we need

even show the beginning of your own

creation you know so I that argument for

me is very you know but you know kundo

hadith and mahalo lucano hadith he then

had Kohima look you know that's the

argument in a really simplistic form but

the the argument for the cosmological

Kalam cosmological argument is arguably

the last argument Stan

I mean even most philosophers will have

to admit that all the arguments have

pretty much fallen by the wayside except

for the clam I mean there's some that

will argue the ontological argument is

still an argument but like the

teleological most philosophers will not

take that argument seriously

I personally teleological is very

convincing to me it certainly was a

traditional Muslim argument but the the

Kannamma cosmological argument which is

a very sophisticated argument that you

cannot have an actual infinity and by

that it means an infinity of discrete

number so you can't have an infinity of

discrete things and that if we say that

the universe is infinite then it's an

it's it's an infinity of discrete things

and that's impossible the alternative to

that is obviously pantheism or

panentheism which some people will argue

for that but the Muslims were not

pantheous if an auto b was not a

pantheist even though western scholars

don't worry antlerless scholars not not

even out of these scholars of late but

the earlier scholars people like

Nicholson and others they'll say that he

was a pantheist and that's only because

they don't have any other term in their

limited mind to describe some of his

articulations but he was