Rihla 2013: Introduction to Logic

Transcript Details

Event Name: Rihla 2013: Introduction to Logic
Description: Introduction to Logic - Shaykh Hamza Yusuf 14 Episodes Based on the “Isagoge” of Imam Athir al-Din al-Abhari, this course will introduce students to the science of logic, a prerequisite before serious study of any of the other sciences. In this course students will be introduced to terms, concepts, the five predicables, definitions, propositions, opposition, conversion, syllogisms, and other basic aspects of correct thinking.
Transcription Date:Transcription Modified Date: 4/4/2019
Transcript Version: 1
Original Reference URL: Youtube Video

Transcript Text

id that's the ear he's

a nerd we'll make a line without ears

okay and then he starts again oh what's

that he said that's the main no no make

it a line without of main and these does

it again

what's that it's the stomach he's in her

I don't want to stomach on the line he

said listen even God didn't make a lion

like this actually I can't do anything

for you and Rumi says why he's telling

the story is that this is people on the

spiritual path

he says they want they want without any

work they don't want the pain of

sacrifice of working date they want the

finished product just there for

everybody to see but they don't want to

do any of the work to get there so

historically you know Muslims this I

think what we tend to forget about our

religion is this religion is actually

about getting close to allah subhan

allah tala that that's the point of it

it's literally to get close to Allah and

not only to get close to a lot but to

experience the divine in our lives to

actually experience the presence of the

divine that we're we're in a world that

has angelic beings demonic beings and we

share this space there's angels that

come with believers and there shall

thing that come with with the people of

found us and misdeeds so drawing near to

Allah they're they're basically two

paths you know to getting close to allah

subhanho wa taala

one of them is the path of salvation

which is for common people that's the

path of just the man who came to the

Prophet he said Yasuo Locke if I pray

five times a day if I pay my zakat

if I fast Ramadan if I make the Hajj

will I enter paradise and the prophets

Allah said I'm said yes and there's a

revised said I avoid the Haram is the

prophet said you'll enter paradise and

then he said then

well lied that's all I'm gonna do and he

left and the Prophet said cut off La

Rochelle and in re y he used the

diminutive the little man Maharaja in

sadoc he'll have success if he's

truthful but that is the bare minimum

that's salvation that's somebody who's

getting close to a lot with the bare

minimum those are the people that just

do the bare minimum that they have to do

to get the Paycheck you know there's

jobs that you have and if you just do

the bare minimum you'll get the paycheck

if you do less than that they fire you

right but there's people that's all

they'll do just the bearment and then

there's people that they want promotion

they want to get close to the boss they

want him to like them they want this

this is the way the dunya works though

and that's the path of purification of

just kiya and sanctification and and

getting close to Allah of tuk DS of

drawing near to Allah through extra acts

these are the no acid so you have the

Farah up and then you have the no offal

the more no after you do the closer you

get to Allah but it's predicated on the

floral so if you're not doing the firaon

and then you're wasting your time doing

the northen and one of the signs

according to the people of that science

one of the signs of following hawa of

following your own desires is that you

prefer no afield over for Eyal so there

will be people that it'll stay up all

night and then they'll sleep through

Federer right really there's people that

do that they'll like do dhikr late into

the night that they have go to a mullet

or do something and then they sleep

through Federer

these are people that still be so he


that's the way it briefs fools people

and tricks people

so the the the the path of both

salvation and this other way the height

this higher way of really trying to draw

draw near to Allah and and through

serving his own MA

serving his creation sacrificing both of

these are predicated on knowledge the

one that is the way of just the for I

help and doing the bare minimum you have

to have the bare minimum of knowledge

which is called 14 the other way is the

way you have to have the far I mean but

then you also do the key fire you do

extra and our tradition because of the

sophistication and the problems that are

attendant with revelation and in a

tradition emerged in the Islamic ethos

and the tradition emerged in order to

protect revelation from misunderstanding

the early companions Allah blessed those

people with a level of knowledge and

understanding that's unparalleled in our

tradition the first community they they

if you study the history they were

amazing brilliant people but if you look

at the Sahaba there are only a handful

of Sahaba that gave fatwa there called

the MOOC theorem there's only a handful

of Sahaba they gave Fatah fatwa people

like Al Merriman hapa a demon of your

party even a mr. rude or de la Abu

Huraira is not from the MOOC 13 a fatwa

even though he gave had many hadith

narrations he didn't give a lot of

thought to a fact he gave a moderate

amount the coordinated one rewire but

one of the things about the early

community is that they were loath to

give fatwa so if you went to ask one of

the Sahaba

a question they used to say go out


he knows better than me and then they

would go to him

Imam no he writes this in his book on

fatwa and then they would say go to

so-and-so go to so-and-so to go and and

it would go until it came back to the

original person now you have people that

are they jumped to answer and very quick

to give an opinion in my Maddox

tradition they called the fatwa Nazz

allah which means mo Seba and imam malik

if he was asked a question in FIP used

to say in LA he what in na la harad your

own which is what you say when you get

it have a tribulation because basically

a fatwa is a response of a scholar who's

trained and in that response he is

saying it is my belief that this is what

God wants you to do in this situation

that that's essentially what a fast way

is you're saying it's my belief that

this is what God would want you to do

this situation now you get another

person who can give a different fatwa

he'll say it's my belief this is what

God wants you to say and in many many

situations you can have different views

because one God is vast and two

understandings differ so the prophets

lies that I'm actually taught us that

there can be two correct opinions and

sigh and Behati the famous one that the

early scholars use is the one of praying

ah sir the prophesy Asim said told them

not to pray ah sir until they got too

many of Coretta and the group went when

a certain came half of them said it's

time to pray and the other half said no

the Prophet said don't pray until we get

there they said oh he didn't mean that

he meant get there before us are and the

other group said no no he meant that

that we should pray when we get there

and and we shouldn't pray also until we

get there

so they split so one group raid answer

before they got there and the second

group waited they delayed their prayer

when they got there they told the

Prophet what happened he didn't say

you're correct and you're wrong he just

left it at that

they were both correct they both made in

HD HOD there was initially Heidi's

situation and that was it now you have

people that believe there's only one way

in Islam and it just so happens to be

their way but you really we have this

problem that there's only one way in

Islam and it's my understanding the

reason that this happens well not avoid

them in bed Muhammad and Bucky and

Boehner home that they didn't start

differing until knowledge came to them

and they became arrogant with their

knowledge Fakhruddin or Aziza says about

that Buffy and Boehner home he says

about the home and about forgotten how

cool Maria wanted a status Sheikh he

said that it's one group saying oh I'm

right and you're wrong you don't you

don't have anything so knowledge can be

a source of conflict and this is why

Imam al-ghazali in in his the first book

he'd have an in of the yeah he lays the

foundations for a correct understanding

of knowledge what is knowledge what is

it a lot of people don't know what

knowledge is they don't understand the

nature of knowledge that there are

knowledge that are precise and then

there are imprecise knowledge as there

are knowledge that have a lot of

ambiguities in them one of the Aristotle

the great Greek philosopher he said that

it's the mark of an educated mind to

demand precision only to the degree with

which that knowledge allows it so in

mathematics you can get a very precise

answer but in in other Sciences that

answer might not be precise it's just

ambiguous by the very nature of the

subject and one of the greatest problems

with language and the reason why the

modern world loves mathematics so much

and is loath to to really explore

language in the ways that it did in the

past one of the reasons for that is the

ambiguities of language the modern world

doesn't like ambiguities and so

people have lost the sciences that

enable them to communicate with the

least amount of ambiguity because you

have to exhaust language studies and

that's why the Muslims did this and one

of these sciences that this was

predicated on was the science of what

they called mump and and its sister

science was called edible bath when Mona

vara in the West these are called logic

and dialectic logic and dialectic and

from these Sciences and there are

ancillary sciences that go with this

like in mid-water is one of them bailout

a-- is another because but i was

important these became the foundation of

islamic studies in the muslim world

everywhere you went they became the

foundation and all of our scholars right

from this perspective you cannot

understand any of the major works of

Islamic scholarship without

understanding these foundational

sciences that they were working with and

so what I thought I'd do tonight just as

an introduction is read from the opening

of a book which to me it's one of the

most important books in our tradition

because it's the foundation of what's

known as the science of to solve and

increasingly it's become clear to me

that one of the great calamities of the

modern Islamic situation is an idea

somehow that to solve is extraneous to

Islam that it's not part of Islam that

the reality of it is is that it is it's

a central core teaching of Islam which

does not mean that there are not a lot

of problems inherent in to solve just

like there are problems that are

inherent in fifth you have Fahad that go


you have Mata kalamoon that go astray

you also have the so we fed that go

astray so there's just like any other

group and in fact they're more

susceptible because of the nature of

their science to going astray but one of

the things that modern Muslims have done

is that they've thrown the baby out with

the bathwater to use a English idiom in

in in trying to purify our tradition

from all of these innovations and all of

these problems that came into it they've

they completely dismissed this science

and so this book was written by C

deokman's a rope the Great North African

scholar who was from fast

he died in Misurata in Libya but he

wrote a book called Hawaii to solve and

in this book what he wanted to do

because he was a no sulie scholar and

this is called toxiel which is to give

the foundations of something toxiel is

very important in our tradition because

a nanaka lee right

shahe Mardan who dared le imam abdul

tena EG he says that the one

transmitting something has to prove that

it's sound but the one claiming

something has to give his his Delisle

for it

so if you say a Paula Ebben a Masood K

to a kata you you have to prove that

even mr. rude really did say that that's

part of our tradition

so the knockin the one transmitting has

to prove the soundness of his

transmission but the Madani the one

claiming something who's just saying

here's the foundation of this that or

the other he has to give his Delisle to

show why so if you had-even is Tim

bought like where did you get that idea

from well I'm deriving it from the fact

of this this and this and then you make

your argument and these arguments are

done through reasoning and this is why

reasoning is foundational to the human


one of the teachers in Turkey he was a

he was a logician they called a month

opee you know a lot a legit

and he had a student and he taught him

logic and when he finished all these

class because logic is it's not that


it has abstraction x' that are sometimes

a little complex to grasp but basically

all of you are logicians everybody in

here is a logician unless you're

McAuliffe ugly and you know like

somebody who's just handicapped

intellectually or Majnoon which is

possible also but if you if you are a

sane human being then you are always

reasoning your your eyes are doing it

well or you're doing it poorly but you

are definitely reasoning the heart has

reasons that the head has no knowledge

of but if you fall in love you get

married people say love is irrational

Stephanie got some irrational components

but there's a reason why you get married

there's a reason why most people love

for reasons they fall in love with their

beauty their goodness in fact they say

about the prophets lies to them that the

reason why you learned the Shema hill is

because attraction to the beautiful

qualities of a person is one of the

reasons that love is cultivated so just

reading about him he was very beautiful

he was a very physically a very

beautiful person he was the most

beautiful of men and he was everything

was was was balanced with the Prophet he

had beautiful hair

he had very wavy black hair it wasn't

curly it wasn't straight because

everything about him is balanced so even

his hair was balanced wasn't straight

and it wasn't curly the extremes those

are two extremes of hair you have curly

hair yep straight hair his was right in

the middle of those two extremes he had

wavy hair parted in the middle

it went sometimes to the bottom of the

earlobe sometimes to his shoulders he

had a very very beautiful complexion

they said it was like the moon

and I asked one of my teachers we were

watching a Harvest Moon rise and it was

that beautiful color that's not white

it's off-white it's like a wheat color

and I said is that the color they meant

he said that's the color they meant it's

not because you could let me put um ha

he was not pasty white like the moon

when it's right up on the sky

no he had a reddish tint to his

complexion he had beautiful eyes he had

very very white his whites what they

call ophthalmologists in America called

happy eyes when the yeah very white

he had very very white that the whites

of his eyes were very white and then he

had very striking dark eyes that were

penetrating he had a beautiful aquiline

nose which is an aristocratic nose in in

many many cultures an aquiline nose was

seen as a beautiful nose and one of the

reasons that it's called aquiline is

because it's it's apana in arabic but in

in in english they call aquiline because

it's like the Aquila the eagle an eagle

has a very beautiful I once saw an eagle

perched on a fence outside of my house

and I just watched it for a little while

and I just I realized the eagle

completely is aware that it's an eagle

if you observe an eagle even for a short

amount of time you will see that an

eagle is so aware that it is superior to

every other bird and the way it just it

just looks around like I am Not Afraid

of anybody or anything it's just got

this amazing and so the Arabs love

Eagles and they name their children

after them they're very very noble birds

but they have these beautiful aqua line

beak and the Prophet SAW I said I'm had

a beautiful

forehead and he had very strong he had

broad shoulders is very strong and he

had beautiful he had a very small light

hair that went down and but he wasn't

hairy at all he was his body was very

his skin was did he did not have a lot

of body hair but he had very slight

hair on his on his chest that went down

to his navel very strong legs he had

strong hands he walked in a very

distinct way those are all qualities

that if you studied them you it actually

makes you want to see him you want I

want to see that I want to experience

that and then they described how he

spoke and the mellifluous nature of his

speech it was when people listened to

him they were enraptured and when he

spoke it was like birds perched on their

heads Coliseum FAO it was as if there

were birds perched on their heads they

were just so intent to hear what he had

to say but the reason that they

described that is because that's one of

the reasons that you love a person for

physical beauty and then you love them

also for their character and that's

another reason but the main reason that

people love is because of sin when

people do good to you and that's why I

lost behind with Diana

he's the moissan I mean he's constantly

doing good to us and that should

engender love in you and so love has

reasons there are reasons why we love

it's a rational thing as well and so

anyway this Turkish logician taught this

this man logic which is basically three

things it's it's it's understanding is

the first operation of the mind basic

understanding what they call a what they

call a a solar savage it's a simple

apprehension just understanding

something what it is glass of water and

then the second act of the mind is is

judgment custody or the proposition

making a statement either negating or

asserting something about something so

it needs a subject that a predicate the

mold or and the Mamun and then the last

operation of the mind is PS or reasoning

going from what's known to what's

unknown men and monomi in an image fool

and so he taught him these things and

then he said

I want you to go into the marketplace

spend the day in the marketplace and

come back so he went spent the day in

the mark he finished his cuz he's gonna

give me Jazza and month up right so he

went to the marketplace spent the day in

the marketplace he came back he said how

was your day

said I did what you told me I was in the

marketplace all day he said did you

notice anything said no he said you're

not ready so we need to do this again so

they studied logic second course did it

all understanding judgment reasoning

finished his course so he said to him I

want you to go and spend the day in the

marketplace okay here he goes spends the

day in the marketplace comes back he

said how was your day in the marketplace

all day just like you told me nothing he

said we have to do this again did the

course in logic again went through the

three operations of the mind when he

finished it he said listen I want you to

go the marketplace spend the day in the

marketplace come back he goes spends the

day in the marketplace comes back he

said how was your day he said oh my god

I couldn't believe it they're all

practicing logic cuz that's what that's

what it is the whole world is people

reasoning making understanding basic

things asserting things or negating

things and then making arguments that's

what's going on everywhere you look

that's what's going on come in there's a

discount today all right there's a

discount today so what's going on in the

mind Oh

if I buy today I'm gonna save money

therefore I should buy today right it's

logic the whole thing is predicated on

reasoning and that's what the student

finally got that it

happening all around you and that's one

of the really interesting things about

studying logic is that you begin to

refine that process and are better able

to understand what's being said to you

and better able to communicate what you

want to say to others so I just want to

show you this is the book by CDI module

called co-editor solve and I'm gonna

read to collide and talk about them

quickly and then we're done

the first guy that he says at Kurama

fish a feral tesora mejia t he was Aida

Tuhoe mafia that he be sure and any and

mocked a seaman or battalion

lyosha aleyhi via ferrata Mahakali

rotten wat abullah siren watashi de

Falla symmetry mode Erica and unholy

fihi lemon be he with a hobby then

alayhi wa ma and he met that he value of

him so he says that clam before we can

talk about it

thing in other words before we can do

make judgments about things we have to

understand what the nature of that thing



so I'll hook moron - am fahren Antasari

this is a Qaeda before you can make a

judgement about a thing you have to

grasp what that

thing is so this is what he's saying

he's saying that akadama fish a 402 so

woody Mejia te it is a branch of

comprehending it's s

since well fati dead t he and and

comprehending what its benefit is be

sure Auden the nyan so this occurs in

the mind


tessa been OBD Heon it either occurs

discursively through reflection through

being taught or it's intuitive you just

grasp it immediately so you have

immediate knowledge and then you have

mediated knowledge so immediate

knowledge is - is greater

than one nobody needs to teach you that

a child will understand that but that

one that 2.5 percent in Socata is 140th

that's market Esav that you have to

understand because you need to

understand what fractions are you need

to understand what decimals are and you

need to understand the relationship

between the two so that's a different

type so those are the two types so he's

saying that before we can speak about

something we have to grasp what its

essence is and what his benefit is

through this mentation through this

mental ratiocination would be a big word

for it in the West and then he says in


lyosha via ferrata Mahakali these are

all logical concepts so this is called

extension in logic so the a fraud that

this is all those things that it extends

to because you have what's called

comprehension and extension

all right the comprehension is is the

the tussle water or the understanding of

it what it is and then the lima sadoc

and then the the Limassol dock is what

it applies to

right what would it would it apply so

all the things that it applies to an and

B with the Hobley then an e so in order

for you to for it to be understood

through it and also the encouragement to

know its fatty dad to know its benefit

will encourage you to study it what a

manly mad daddy he

and to to be able to articulate its

subject matter and so you should

understand this so here's the beginning

of a book on to solve which is all based

on month up like you cannot understand

this if you haven't studied month up

so here's a this is our tradition if you

read tafseer if you read

peda if you read any of the major

sciences of Islam especially also

landfill you will find that they're all

relying on the the readers understanding

of these most thought a hat and not just

these but several other sciences

especially when you get into the later

scholastic tradition by the time you get

to somebody like an imam

about jewelry he's he's got Binaca going

he's got mom Tucker going he's got

grammar going he's got what that going

it's it's

monster hunter hadith tafseer Osuna

happy de felt suffer hikmah all of these


as well-versed in and this is how he's

teaching so then he says mariya to share

happy cut to who

the essence of something is its reality

the essence of a thing is its reality to

understand the essence is to understand

the reality right well how can you cut

two who madhulata Leahy Joomla Tahoe and

its reality is what it it's some

summarily means what it means by

summation what it can be summed up into

with charity for that it could be had

and the definition of that is through a

head which is a term in Latin terminus

means the end of something so a term is

is the end of something in Arabic had is

the end of something had douche a part

of a whole our hero

so the the had is the end of something

and so this is Watchmen that's that is

the most comprehensive is a definition

but then you have what's called a rossum

which in Western logic is called a

descriptions so something and and when

we get into I'm just giving you this is

just a you know it's like at the

restaurant when they give you a sample

so don't we're gonna go into this in

detail over the course of the next

couple of weeks inshallah so don't worry

about not getting any of this right now

when when you get a hand or Rustom you

need to know what are called the five

predicate predicate bulls which are the

L father Kamsa right so you have gins

the genus you have the north the species

you have the hosta the diferencia and

then you have the the the the outer

which is like the its you have the

propria is the and then you have the

fossil sorry the fossil which is the

differentiate the hasta which is the

probiem or the property and they have

the arab and some call the those two

types of accidents the adult eliza moon

and then I don't own out of them so

those five things are going to enable

you to give the head the definition or

the description the HUD is is

is the genus and the difference so the

genus is what you can say about a lot of

things the hafsa is what's specific to

that one thing so with a human being

what's our definition traditionally in

in in logic what do they call the human

being what's that

Hyeon not the Conan which in Arabic

means the speaking animal but they

really mean the rational animal in the

West we call it a rational animal so our

genus is rational this is different from

biology because you know they talk about

genus and species so yeah those are

biological terms this is logical terms

there are two different Sciences so

don't get them confused

the GE I mean they're they're related

but they're used very specifically in

these Sciences for different for things

that they mean in that science so that

the the genus is the general and then

the the fossil is the difference so with

the human being we're an animal but many

types of animals so what makes us unique

what's the Fussel what differentiates us

from other animals rationality this is

the definition so this is a logical

definition everything can be defined in

this way and this is the foundation of

defining things because when we speak in

language we want to know what a solid

fit is right what is also load v very

often it's in the thing itself all

Siouxland fit if you understand those

two words then you'll understand what

the definition of all Sunan fit is and

these are called tatty feds right so

this is this is how this works and so he

says well what old ah the the rasam the

description is clear oh tafseer or it

can explain something or tembu leave a

knee or sorta a famiiy and it helps you

understand it quickly

well put the sole see now all of this

was to introduce the definition of

tussle wolf

all of this so he's giving you now he's

told you before we can talk about

something we have to define it

what's its definition it's it's reality

what is the reality of Tessa Wolfe

well the tasawwuf Oh

LaRue Seema well for Serie B will do him

Tessa wolf has been defined it's been

described and it's been explained in

many many different ways tab local now

ll feign it will reach up to about 2000

different definitions merger aku Neha is

sitteth ilaha illa-llah Tana all of

those definitions go back to one

fundamental meaning sincerity in your

God directedness it's sincerity in your

inner direction towards your Lord that's

the definition what in the mahir will do

and fie he will honor so what does that

mean what it means is the genus of Toso

wolf is if loss that's the genus it's

sincerity but the difference because you

can be sincere as a doctor you're

sincere like you say he's a very sincere

doctor just means he doesn't cheat you

he's doing what should be done right so

that's the genus sincerity applies to

many many different things he's a

sincere student he's a sincere son we

can apply that to me but what is the


what's the Fussell it's sincerity in

your directedness towards God in those

things that apply

to your Lord so you are sincere in your

ebody you're sincere in your more I'm

glad for the sake of Allah subhana WA

Ta'ala that's that's all and that's why

you can be a Sufi and and and be like

have nothing to do with that word

there's people in in places that they

might even not even like to solve then

what I mean they do with it but they

have sits back toward you to a loss of a

note down and in that way they have to

solve so the name is just a name what's

the reality of the name if you're stuck

on the name you're a nominalist the name

is just a name whether you call it a

soul Fortis kia ora floss or Mahara

Pajaro to nufs right whatever you call

it it doesn't matter those are names the

Muslims for centuries called it - so

wolf there's no reason to abandon that

name really there's no reason there's

people that have tried to get rid of it

but there's no reason to abandon it once

you clarify what it is and the early the

earliest Sufis Imam al Junaid said no

one can speak about this matter that

hasn't mastered the book and the Sunna

that's what Imam Junaid said a moment to

study said I hear things about this

matter but I always go to to just

witnesses to hear their testimony the

book and the Sunna and this is why

Caesar Rock says the Sufi has to submit

to the FUP II and the doesn't

have to submit to the Sufi if you're

tasawwuf is not in accord and not some

narrow-minded provincial Fuffy who only

has one way of doing thing no to the

broad based interpretive tradition of

the folk aha which includes the

methodology of the great Imams of this

Ummah so there's Imams that say that you

can do the Mawlid and that's the

majority of the laters

there's really moms that say no don't do

that that's fine it's a real F issue if

you don't want to do it that's fine but

if you do do it it has to be free of

things that are moon cut out but to say

it in and of itself is a moon car no

because higher to my yoga Rehema crew

arrived to my yoga the worse that can be

said about it is that it's macro

according to the Aruna map but to say

that it's prohibited or something like

that and that's an extreme position that

very few scholars ever took so anyway

that that's my introduction so in

childhood tomorrow I'm going to start

with the Tenma body which our foundation

on our tradition what are called the my

body and I shot in the could in the my

body could defendant Azshara and had the

one more daughter in math Amara father

who nice for tomorrow are there or

dismissed and dad or hookman sharing

massage in mobile doable Bartok tefa

moment Daryl Jimmy has a share of a Imam

of Seban one of the great 18th century

scholars versified the Tenma body in

that it's in your book and then I

versified it for you in English if you

want to memorize it in English so those

are the 10 my body I'm gonna do those

tomorrow and shawl and that's usually

that was the introduction to any Islamic

science always began with this it begins

from an early period they started doing

this and the reason for it was to give

the student a comprehensive view of the

subject be