Rihla 2013: Introduction to Logic

Transcript Details

Event Name: Rihla 2013: Introduction to Logic
Description: Introduction to Logic - Shaykh Hamza Yusuf 14 Episodes Based on the “Isagoge” of Imam Athir al-Din al-Abhari, this course will introduce students to the science of logic, a prerequisite before serious study of any of the other sciences. In this course students will be introduced to terms, concepts, the five predicables, definitions, propositions, opposition, conversion, syllogisms, and other basic aspects of correct thinking.
Transcription Date:Transcription Modified Date: 4/4/2019
Transcript Version: 1
Original Reference URL: Youtube Video

Transcript Text

ists argued that

there's not a plural some of them say


is a I mean a feminine form but most say

in San is like Minch it includes the

male and the female in San the the the

meaning of in san comes from Ernst which

is intimacy that the human is an

intimate creature it needs to have

intimacy to survive if it doesn't have

intimacy it dries up and dies as a

creature it needs to have Ernst and then

it's also the same word in San is the

word for pupil of the eye so the in san

the boo-boo the in san is the pupil of

the eye and one of the things that we

know that when people are experiencing

intimacy the pupil dilates it opens up

so there's an opening of the in sun that

humans when they're in experience

intimacy they open up they they they get

in Shara they expand and the highest

intimacy is intimacy with the divine

that the intimacy of at unspell a to

have intimacy with the divine and this

is the greatest expansion in sha that

occurs so another just to show you the

cosmology embedded in arabic another

word for i is i mean now i mean means

essence it means the source it's also

used for a spring anion is the

life-giving for the arabs the the the

ein of water is the life-giving source

and so there there's something embedded

in that that understanding that

indicates that the I the secret of the I

of seeing that it's related to the

essence of man that we were actually

created for masha hada were created for

witnessing like our existence is there

to witness the divine and that's why

that the essence of the human being is


which means witnessing Shahada is

witnessing so i know in san the eye of

the human being and the essence of the

human being is for Shahada it's to

witness so this is the nature of that

you can get into that now when you study

grammar you find that there's basically

two concepts in grammar there's the

concept of substance and there's the

concept of time substance is articulated

through through quality and quantity

through adjectives through nouns adverbs

these all tell us the quality of


he ran swiftly so swiftly is telling us

something about the nature of the

running but running is time you are in

time so you have time and you have place

these and this is the human being has

two orientations or orientation to time

and place so when a physician wants to

to look at a student they ask them I

mean a patient they want to orient them

to time and place so they'll say who's

the president and then they'll say where

are you and then they know that they're

in their right mind because they have

that orientation that's language time

and place that's language and that's

what makes us human

now the other thing about language is

language is rational that when we speak

we have to follow an order table sky

reason may

blue elevate wonderful know when see if

I start talking like that those are all

words but there's no order to them they

were just coming off the top of my head

and you aren't understanding you each

one of those words can convey a

comprehension I know what sky is he said

sky I know what that is

but you don't know what I'm saying or

what I mean because there was no order

so there is a logic to language and that

logic is expressed through syntax I have

to have an order to my language and in

in our language for instance in English

there is a certain type of order we have

subject we have verb right we have

object right John

hit I'm gonna use the Arab because and

when we were kids we learned you know

Dixie's Jane like when I was a kid they

probably don't even do that nobody teach

grammar anymore but in the Arab world I

I told them that you're not gonna get

rid of violence in the Arab world until

you change the way you teach grammar

because they always teach thought of as

a Dona Mirana

they all that's how their every sentence

that the first sentence you learn in

Arabic grammar is Zaid hit ammo and

you're just one like what's up with that

you know like why is aid hitting him why

couldn't he do something else to him

like you know

Zaid you know you know he saw I mean but

they have the bottom they have to have

the bottom right so so that is language

has it follows a pattern and when you

learn a language one of the hard things

about learning a foreign language

is that it doesn't often have the same

patterns that you have and you can it

can be confusing so in Arabic if I said

Alcala Kusa Musa right did I mean the

the the courgette ate Moses or did I

mean Moses ate the

courgette i can't tell because it's it's

they're both max or right there they're

there they have the Edit max aura so i

don't know but if i know if and that's

why you should do that because it's

muhammad's and ambiguous you should

that's a time where you should put the

fire first right and then if it would be

he after in grammar so you should really

say I could have Musa Kusa but if if you

no reason it's not reasonable that the

courgette 8 Musa or but there's somebody

can be called there was a minister I

think from Lebanon is she acted your

mouth here didn't they have Minister

Musa Kusa he was in Libya Musa Kusa yeah

I mean that's a father with a sense of

humor so so anyway so language now the

nature of language is it's ambiguous

language is ambiguous because you you

can say things and they can be taken in

different ways right that we have what

are in English we call double entendres

right you can say something and you can

mean different things with it and even

our tone like there's certain languages

that tone is very important like Chinese

you have different tones in in English

we use tone to accent things yeah he's

smart isn't he you know that's very

different saying wow he's smart isn't he

a completely different statement even

though it's the same words but the tone

conveys something so the these are these

this is the nature of language but

language is also clear and the clearer

language is the better we understand it

so people can eat the people say that

he's very unclear and his thinking he's

muddled in his thinking I can't

understand him what's he talking about

and teachers will tell you that you need

more clarity in your writing things like

this so this is part of it now what what

logic does is it it helps you to

understand better what you

naturally do everybody is using logic

and that was the meaning of that story

when the student comes back after the

third time from the marketplace oh my

god was dad

it's unbelievable everybody's using

logic he finally got it and that's what

you see in the world and doesn't matter

where you go logic is not a Western

concept what Aristotle did and it's it's

interesting that we're in Turkey and

we're studying this because Aristotle

was from Turkey I mean it was part of

the you know Asia Minor and it was part

of the Greek but he was he lived on the

Asian side so he was he was actually you

know from and he died here but he what

he did I mean there's a different

there's a debate about what he did and I

will get to that when I do that my body

so my point is is that when you study

logic what you're studying is really

what you're what you do naturally in the

same way that when you use when you

study grammar you're studying what you

do naturally which is you speak

grammatically you might make grammatical

mistakes in your language I ain't gonna

go there or you know I have a friend

he's very educated but he uses double

negatives all the time right and he's

got a you know he's a PhD candidate and

I like I correct him because they just

want to hear a double negative it's it's

like ouch but you know yeah

people people a double negative is a

positive right so you're actually saying

the opposite of what you think you're

saying so ain't gonna not go there

so people use language and they can

misuse language and the same is true in

reasoning and that's why you learn

grammar to protect your tongue from

making mistakes you learn logic to guard

your reasoning so that your reasoning

skills are better but also so that you

can see the arguments of others and be

able to criticize them does that make

sense now one of the things about our

traditions it's very important because

we have morality better known we believe

in the degrees of knowledge in the same

way that you have in the same way that

you have Newtonian physics and quantum

physics they're very different right

Newtonian physics and quantum physics

are two completely different physics

quantum physics all of the Newtonian

laws break down in quantum mechanics but

quantum physics has been observed so

they know that underlying this Newtonian

world that we live in there's another

reality which is quantum and they don't

fully understand it and they're trying

to work out really what's going on but

the quantum world is very weird for

instance in the quantum world you can be

in two places at one time in in the

Newtonian world you can you can only be

in one place at one time

and in a quantum world you could really

you could walk through a wall in a

Newtonian world you can't so for those

of you who had the unfortunate

experience of seeing the matrix the

matrix was somebody who was learning to

work in a quantum world right I mean

that's really what was happening to him

was that he was learning to work in the

quantum world where the laws of physics

that are Newtonian don't apply so

bullets won't kill you in that world but

in a Newtonian world they will and so

one of the things that's important for

to understand is that this logic works

on one level of existence but there are

other levels of existence where this

logic completely breaks down and one of

the interesting things about the Western

tradition is that they've never been

able to really deal with these degrees

of knowledge and so they end up denying

certain types of realities because they

don't fit in to other types of realities

and they have a lot of problems in their

philosophy because of this whereas the

Muslims have always understood they

Shetty and how people are two very

important concepts in our tradition you

have a Sharia and you have a happy cow

if you look in the Mata beam Ematic

there's a hadith where Moses and Adam

have a debate and when Moses meets Adam

Musa and he said it meets on him he says

you're the one waitin s you you led us

astray right in other words it's your

fault that this whole mess has happened

and so he's talking that's that's the

the logic of Aristotle that's that's

where Moosa A&M; was working at that

level when he when he made that

statement it's like a judge in a court

case you broke the law and then there

were these repercussions right

Adam Adam his response was you know to

go from the Newtonian world into the

quantum world and he said your Moses

your Moussa you're the one that God

bestowed all this knowledge on and gave

you all this wisdom are you going to

blame me for something called arolea

cabinet and o'clock at ceremony you know

are you gonna blame me for something

that was decreed for me before I came

into existence and in another rewire

that's not an immortal the Prophet said

Adam defeated Moses

in the in the argument because he was

using another logic he wasn't using the

logic of the courtroom of the Sharia he

was using another logic and so that's

important for us when we go into this to

understand that this is the logic of the

Newtonian world it's not the logic of

the quantum world it's the logic of the

Newtonian world but it is the logic that

our Sharia is based on that every

rational system of law in the world is

based on when you go into a court of law

you are going into a court that relies

entirely on logical arguments and what

lawyers do is they argue now if the

judge or the jury is not trained in

logic then they're susceptible to

logical fallacies appeal to pity is a

type of soft supple appeal to pity so

they'll give a sob story that'll make

these people feel all this compassion

that's actually a logical fallacy to do

that now sometimes it's important but

that's not an argument to do that that's

not an argument that holds up against

these rigorous standards of

argumentation or they'll use other types

of fallacies poisoning the well is a

logical fallacy and if people aren't

trained to identify these arguments or

they'll say you know a therefore B but

it's a non sequitur it doesn't follow

but if somebody's not trained to see

that one of the great Crispus who was a

great early logician he said he noted

that even animals use logic because he

was walking once and he saw a rabbit

turn a corner and there was a three

roads and it went down a road and then a

hound was chasing it and it came around

and it couldn't see the rabbit any more

so it it sniffed the first road and then

went to the second sniffed a second and

without sniffing the third it just went

down the third so crucifix

derived from that that the dog was using

logic because it was either a B or C if

not a or B then C but it did it

intuitively and so this is the you know

this this is the study of logic it's why

it's important you cannot one of the the

the most important aspects of democracy

is that democracy is a type of

government that is saying that instead

of using might to impose our will we're

gonna use argument that we make cases so

you will have somebody will try to

legislate a law and he'll give arguments

and then those people listening to it

will either be convinced or not

convinced for instance if if they're

gonna go to war people will give

arguments if you remember in the United

States before the Iraqi war what did

they do they made all these arguments

for why they were gonna go to war why

because they're saying we have to use

reason but if people aren't trained in

analyzing arguments they can be

manipulated and fooled and tricked into

doing things that are dangerous and

harmful and destructive so that's why

it's very important to to know this so

that you can defend yourself against

those types of logical fallacies so now

we're going to go into the the ten

foundations in in our tradition and my

body and Ashura

are a member buddha in arabic is ism

makan it's it's a place where something

happens that muffin like muffin is

another form of it so you have like

masjid is a place of sujood Mata is a

place of Taba

it's the place

where you cook bah bahah means to cook

so whenever you see that pattern the

muffled pattern it's a place of

something it can also be time as well so

like most simmer mo lid the play mode it

could be the place or the time you were


so the molded in Mecca is where the

Prophet was born but the molded is also

the 12th of Rabi no.1 according to most

of the scholars so meba is the place

where you begin something the meb de but

that too I began Abdel Khun lo Imran


Lemieux Bobby B Smith laughs who were up

top every affair that is momentous or

weighty that does not begin with

bismillah is cut off of barakah so so we

begin things but that to the mugdha is a

starting place it also means the

principle now if you look at principle

it comes from a Latin word Principia

which means first right so it's also the

same idea the principles are those first

things the axioms the things that are

things are based upon predicated upon so

Sciences have our scholars identified 10

my body that students should always

begin their coursework and that for

those of you who have studied with me

over the years I've always tried to

begin my classes with my body and Ashura

and so this is a Mohammed Bernardo Seban

was great grammarian he's famous for a

commoner and the envy of even Malik he

versified there other ones Imam and

mockery also versified the tenma body

there are different versions of this but

this is a way of remembering them so in

them of adequately offend and Ashura the

Fen is an art it's what we call art the

art of logic pendulum on top innama body

could defend an Azshara I'll head to one

more guru from a samara so he's saying

that well I translate it down so I'll

just go through well father who when a

spittoon were well there

what is more esteemed a do

sharukh Massa Aaron well bar Doble

bardic tefa women Darryl jamia has a

shot of a-- so i versified this into

english each science contains these ten

elements the essence or definition

because definition is getting to the

essence of something the essence its

subject and benefits its virtue

relations and source its name once it

draws legal force add topics and all is

contained with mastery much honor is


so that's stuff a doing most of so the

first is the definition a definition

comes in in in logic it comes from a

Tesla water you have to conceptualize

something in order to define it at AA so

water is to understand its form and when

we get into the formal call the causes

therefore causes so you have material

efficient formal and final these are the

four causes we'll get into this in

material logic the formal cause is the

surah in arabic it's called surah and 2

so water is to to get a the image of the

thing and in fact Aristotle called it

the phantasm the imago it's - it's to

get the image of a thing in your mind

and this is this is grasping you know

what we talked about

I haven't grasped it right grasp right

that the mind grasps things and and so

it's through the senses that we come to

know the world if anybody knows the

story of Helen Keller when when she was

a little girl she she became ill and she

was blind blinded she lost her sight she

lost her ability to hear and she lost

her ability to speak I completely cut

off from the world she became like a

animal in her

description by the time she was about

seven years old her father brought a

woman who was also blind brought her to

teacher Annie Sullivan and she couldn't

break through she couldn't get through

to her like - because she needed she

wanted to teach her language but she

needed to teach her symbols and the way

that she was doing it was with her hand

she would write things and then she

would take a thing and she would have

her feel it to grasp it cuz I mean

imagine you can't see you can't hear you

can't speak but she can feel she can

smell and she can taste so she doesn't

have all of her five senses two very

important ones which are the inroads of

knowledge in the summer what a boss

oughta work for ADA it's the ears and

the sight that allow users these are the

inroads of knowledge is how you come to

know things is through the eyes and the

ears she couldn't understand and she did

all these things to try to get her but

the breakthrough can't came with water

she was symbolizing in her hand a symbol

for water and she was pouring from the

pump she was pouring water in her hand

and if you read the description it's a

very powerful description of what

happens to her because she wrote her

autobiography and it's worth reading but

she's she's feeling the water and her

teacher is symbolizing in the hand and

then suddenly that the light went on she

understood that the symbol over here

that the what's called an artificial

sign in logic the the water right it's a

positive sign the this Delana Whataya

was the same as the the experience of

that cool liquid flowing on her hand she

got it and she understood that what's

interesting is she said suddenly her

entire interior changed she said a light

went off in her consciousness

what's interesting is that that night in

ends and Sullivan's Diaries she wrote I

saw a light coming to the face of Helen

today that's the light of consciousness

meaning penetrated her her intellect for

the first time she understood

abstraction she and that is what we do

we abstract this is this is the

incredible gift that God has given human

beings is the ability to symbolize too

abstract to understand abstraction signs

we are we are by our nature sign makers

and sign readers and this is why the

Quran calls it signs ayats in a fanatic

Allah ayats The Omen yet of a Quran

right this is this is what it's it's for

people that reflect on what things mean

what is the meaning of the sign and so

the HUD once you have a once you

comprehend something you have that

grasping you can then symbolize so she

had the water she grasped it okay I'm

getting that now she's got the symbol

for it right so that's the so she can

define now water water is that cool

liquid that is tasteless without smell

taste right doesn't have any or color so

we all know what water is we have a

simple apprehension of water how we

define it it's the basis of biological

life that's one definition

it's made of a hydrogen two hydrogen

atoms and one oxygen atom that's another

definition and that's coming from the

high love the definer because a chemist

will define it one way a biologist will

define it another way but they're

talking about the same thing based on

the perspective that they're looking

from so logic may be defined as quote

the art which directs the very act of

reason that which enables us to advance

with order ease and correctness in the

act of reason itself and that's from a

great Catholic logician Jacques Maritain

brilliant philosopher who died in 1973 a

little biographical note about him

that's kind of interesting when he was a

very young man he studied with Burks and

Bergson was a brilliant early twentieth

century philosopher but of that new

school of philosophy that was very

radical and abandoning traditional

philosophy and he was one of his

brilliant students and he he met a

Russian Jewish Russian lady Raisa they

were at the Sorbonne together and they

made it they fell in love and anyway

they made a pact that if they didn't

find the truth within a year that they'd

just commit suicide together a very

French thing to do but they discovered

st. Thomas Aquinas that year so he ended

up spending the rest of his life writing

commentaries on st. Thomas anyway

that's his definition of logic which is

not his but there are many but that's

his articulation of that and then as a

science this is from a Muslim text book

written in probably the 1840s 1850s by a

great scholar from fast as a science it

regulates the investigation of concepts

and proposition in ways that enable one

to arrive at a previously unknown

proposition another definition is the

science that enables us to conclude from

something that is known something that

was previously unknown so it's going

from what is known these are the first

two premises of the syllogism to the

conclusion which is what was unknown so

that's about it even at hazard feci and

then logic may be may be defined as the

science that directs our mental

operations and our mental operations are

three understanding judging and

reasoning these are the three acts of

the the mind when it's in a rational

state I mean there's obviously other


but when we're communicating this is

this is what what we're doing so that

they proceed with order facility and

consistency toward the attainment of

truth the mental operations referred to

in this definition are the three basic

acts of the intellect namely conception

or simple apprehension judgment and

reasoning so that's from crach who's

another traditional logician the name is

the ISM so you give like you give

Sciences names and most schools today

what was formerly known as logic is now

called critical thinking critical

thinking is one branch of material logic

it's it's part of material logic but you

have formal logic and material logic

what they call the lesser or greater

logic the greater logic is material

logic lesser logic is formal logic

formal logic studies the formal rules of

reasoning and material logic looks at

the actual content of of what you're

reasoning about so critical thinking is

what logic has been reduced to in the

West in Arabic logic is known as montec

because it contains three meanings the

ability to speak the ability to

comprehend universals and we'll get into

that and the power of comprehension

itself Arabs chose this word month up

because logic strengthens the first the

ability to speak it makes your speaking

more orderly more clear more persuasive

enables the second in other words the

ability to comprehend universals because

you have to understand what a universal

is and we'll get into that and then to

the second to be more accurate and endow

spur fection on the third right so the

power of understanding imam al-ghazali

called it the touchstone of knowledge he

wrote five books on logic imam

al-ghazali he was a great logician he

said that he learned logic from from the

prophets because he studied the quranic

arguments and we'll get into that their

arguments but even tenia

wrote a book refuting the logicians or a

10-month Ophion and he said it down

Muhammad I know their anthem and Montauk

and yeah like in a note and I Muhammad

had been in Cena he said you know even

Tamia claimed he learned logic from the

prophets but the reality is he learned

it from even Xena

he called it neha kanava which means the

touchstone of knowledge and also the

criterion of knowledge she called it

Mary are a little more merrily in the

standard of knowledge it is also called

the key to knowledge mystical heirloom

it's also called the balance and muezzin

because the soundness of speech is

measured by it another name given to it

is the upright scale based on the

quranic verse imam al-ghazali actually

thought that this verse was revealed was

referring to using logic was Zeno Biswas

and Muslim so he called it a kiss toss

and Muslim it's the standard the upright

scales of knowledge aristotle refer to

it as analytics prior and posterior it's

also divided into major material logic

and minor formal logic depending upon

the subject matter formal logic covers

the validity or invalidity of the

syllogism forms syllogisms form and

structure while material logic covers

the actual content of the syllogism the

late 19th century witnessed the

emergence of symbolic or mathematical

logic for centuries until the 16th

century Francis Bacon introduced the the

new organ on which the organ on is the

six books of Aristotle that he wrote on

logic in our tradition even Sina wrote a

Shifa which basically was an Arab


of the Hellenistic tradition because he

wanted to free Muslims from any

dependency on a foreign source so he

wrote the Shifa and and it's it's he

definitely added some things to

Aristotle's logic and he has his own

views about certain things but it's

essentially Aristotelian law

and then from that the metaphysical

components were removed largely by the

Sunni scholars and Imam al-ghazali

introduces it in the mostess part which

is his most important work on a solid

fill in the Mustafa he has a 40 page

introduction to the mostess foot which

is all logic so it's basically a primer

and he felt that the sudhi scholar a

jurist would have to have have some

knowledge of logic even tamiya argued

that the only form of logic that was

useful was analogical reasoning and he

did not he actually refutes deductive

reasoning in his book and argues that

inductive reasoning is really the only

type of logic that has any validity and

this is pretty much the argument of

Francis Bacon Aristotle does not deal a

lot with inductive reasoning he did not

consider it as important as deductive

reasoning and for a very simplistic

understanding of the two deductive

reasoning argues from universals to

particular Zand inductive goes from

particulars to universals so in in

inductive reasoning is scientific

reasoning it's looking at things out

there and then deriving conclusions from

looking at particulars deriving

Universal conclusions deductive

reasoning would be based on a type of

epistemology that is no longer deemed

important in the West but is the

foundation of Muslim Jewish and

Christian epistemology which is what

they call epistemological realism and

this is we believe in what's called

Motaba the correspondence theory of

truth that truth is what corresponds

with reality reality is something that's

intelligible which is metaphysical


and you know just I'll say about this

Muslims today many Muslims around the

world are taught that philosophy is evil

and Muslims should never study

philosophy the reality of it is is that

we are all heavily influenced by

philosophy most of you who have gone to

Western schools have imbibed

a great deal of philosophy without

really understanding it or knowing how

it happened or why it happened and you'd

have to study the history of philosophy

to really understand how these these

ideas emerged as the dominant ideas but

if you do not philosophize somebody else

philosophizes for you it's as simple as

that and we are we are affected deeply

by philosophical constructs constantly

liberal capitalism free-market these are

all philosophical ideas there there are

economics has philosophy right

utilitarianism most of the ethics that

exist today in the West is and

increasingly in the Muslim world is

utilitarian ethics which is a

consequential it looks at the ends of

things Muslims never considered that a

basis for an ethical philosophy Muslims

always had virtue ethics at the heart of

their tradition virtue ethics looks at

the virtue of a thing and this is why

for instance abortion is a philosophical

problem and the if you read arguments

for or against abortion their

philosophical arguments if you read

arguments for or against same-sex

marriage their philosophical arguments

because law has philosophy the legal

philosophy of the Muslims is called a

solid fit it's legal philosophy it is

philosophy it's trying it's it's using

the intellect to think through problems

that's essentially what philosophy

is and so you're going to get it whether

you like it or not whatever you call it

it doesn't really matter it's it's it's

basically thinking and learning how to

think and that's why that this science

was the foundation of it and this idea

that Imam al-ghazali somehow killed this

from the Muslim tradition is a great

slander on him because he was a great

philosophical thinker even Tamiya was a

philosopher and if you read his his

books you'll see he's making

philosophical arguments so it's

important for educated Muslims to

understand that not everybody has to

study this and not everybody should

study it but it's important that people

in your society study it and in an

educated society it's important that

everybody has some degree of working

knowledge with this this should be

primary education traditionally in

Muslim societies this was taught at the

high school level it's not advanced it

wasn't considered Advanced Studies at

all if you read it in a show if a Nasser

uses logic based on ohm at Abilene which

was a text taught to 12 year olds 13

year olds and he's using syllogisms and

logic should not be introduced in the

pre logical period so a child really

should not be introduced to logic until

they reach about 12 or 13 that's

important so anyway that those are the

names mathematical or symbolic logic

emerges in 1913 a very important work

principia mathematica was published by

Lord Whitehead Alfred North Whitehead

and Bertrand Russell Bertrand Russell

was brilliant mathematician but

basically really gave a devastating blow

to traditional logic before that for the

last two thousand three hundred and


years traditional logic what was taught

there were certain additions added with

bacon because of inductive reasoning

that was developed and then John Stuart

Mill also developed inductive reasoning

and then you have boolean algebra which

is George Boole self-taught

mathematician from Ireland who

introduces another type of logic and

then you had Charles Pierce in America


pragmatist philosopher who was also a

brilliant logician but before Russell

this is what was taught to people it was

taught in the United States my

grandmother I have her textbook from

high school public high school and in

Wisconsin and she studied logic and

rhetoric that was just part of

curriculum in and people could think a

lot better I think because of it so they

were better off for it so I think we'll

we'll stop there and any questions

logic even to me

he was uh he was a brilliant scholar in

his own right and he he was in his mind

he was really trying to defend what what

he perceived to be this pure teaching

that came to the Prophet SAW lies to him

and wanted to make sure that revelation

that what he was always central I mean

his impulses I think were very honorable

impulses and and he truly believed that

that the metaphysics was very dangerous

to the Islamic ethos and he was

particularly deeply troubled by two

metaphysical thinkers

they've been out of me that had to me

who was very influential even out of me

was taught in the Ottoman period

extensively he was called Chi Akbar I

mean now he's anathematized by most

Muslims but since the 13th century he

was pretty much the end all in in

philosophical Sufism so he was very

troubled by him he actually mentions in

his fatale and I've read this I haven't

read this in a book I read it from him

he mentioned that he benefited greatly

from even Auto be even Tamiya until he

read the full source he said when he

read the full soul so to him he realized

too how dangerous the man's ideas were

and so he you know he spent a lot of his

life writing polemical arguments against

metaphysics and and what he felt was

that he said originally he thought logic

was fine but then he realized that logic

is predicated on a metaphysical premise

that he felt was very dangerous

and we're going to get into that when we

deal with the universals in some ways

even tenía really is the first

nominalist I mean the nominalism is

attributed to William of Ockham but I

think it's arguable and somebody would

this would be a good PhD dissertation

for somebody you'd have to do a lot of

work to do it but I think would be a

very interesting PhD to look at the

nominal istic tendencies of Eamon Tamiya

anyway any other questions

Dominic it's very interesting that the

lot logic wasn't talked additionally to

youngsters only art once they begin to a

reason right I tell the difference

between things is there connection

between that not so no physical

connection between that and the

categorization of knowledge as in that

hierarchical way that the Muslims used

to do

could it be relative to different age

groups the Muslim tradition and it's not

dissimilar to the Western tradition

before the you know the end of the 19th

century the Muslims believed that the

great gift that young children had was

memorization that the mind is very agile

and the ability to absorb a lot of

information is readily available to a

child of about seven and so they would

focus on memorizing rote memorization

without understanding at about 12 the

intellect really starts kicking in this

is what they call sinew Tamizh is 7

where they're moving out of the magical

realm because children before seven are

in there in a magical world which is why

the prophets Elias and prohibited you

know you cannot strike a child before

seven years of age and

and you shouldn't because they're not

there's no tech leaf at all at about


- cliff starts kicking in it's not there

but now they can really understand

people say no no they know before 7:00

my 5 year olds no they don't they're not

capable of lying a 5 year old people say

no he's lying I know he is they're not

in their world there are different

possibilities you know really I mean

quite literally there are different

possibilities so if they break something

at 5 or 4 and you say who broke that I

don't know you know that is a totally

viable answer for a four-year-old and

it's not a lie they're not they're not

making it up

it's just in their world it's perfectly

acceptable for them not to know who

broke it even though they know they

broke it but at 7 it's different now

they know they broke it and they know

that's the only real possible answer so

that is the beginning of Tamizh and then

by twelve thirteen as puberty begins to

settle in the logic kicks in now what's

interesting is in all pre-modern

societies mathematics was not taught to

children other than basic rote

memorization only they they did not

teach any mathematics to children before

12 or 13 and it is well-documented that

a child can learn all of the mathematics

that we teach between 6 and 12 they can

learn between 12 and 13 all of it and

they actually learn it better and they

understand it and they don't get the

math phobias that a lot of a lot of

people are traumatized from from

mathematics because they were taught to

early and so it's too abstract

mathematics is very abstract it's a

completely abstract subject and there's

the child's not in the abstract world

yet they're still in the world of just

sensory experience they haven't entered

into abstraction so that that's really

why that was the understanding that

you didn't want to traumatize in fact

Steiner I mean I'm not a big fan of

Steiner so I'm not promoting him or

anything but Steiner argued that if you

introduce mathematics or logic to

prepubescent children you'll actually

disrupt the process of their like the

menage the the onset of puberty will

change you'll affect these things so

you'll get earlier onset puberty because

you're disrupting a natural evolution

and these this wisdom of ancient peoples

so any other question everybody's it's

all clear

would you say that in general the

private school is consistent with the

Muslim world view and not at all I don't

think so

I mean with that that's another that

would be a whole long discussion about

pragmatism and what pragmatism is I mean

Muslims there we're all pragmatist to

some degree but a lot of the Islamic law

is not based on pragmatic things there

are other considerations than the

pragmatic one is not the only

consideration that Muslims would would

use huh yeah

surely this will be our last question

sonica me if animals have logic as you

described and we know that they have

communication from the stories of the

quran particularly with Nabi Solomon and

the hood hood bird who had very advanced

concepts of God and worship and things

like that is the philosophical reasoning

power that the basis of human search for

God and could that be the difference

between animals and humans is our

ability to reason is that what is the

foundation of our search and the

capacity that because we seem to have

animals seem to have most of the skills

and the capacity that we have in terms

of communication logic and things like

that no I think more than reasoning when

we get in because the first section of

this which I'm gonna focus on more than

any of the other sections because what

I'm hoping that you get out of this is a

desire to pursue this study this is not

something that we can really do in three

weeks and I'm gonna cover the text

though insha'Allah but I but the when

you get in from the the most important

thing that I want you to get is the the

the first section on understanding and

the second section on propositions on

the the reasoning the syllogisms I'm

going to focus more on material

fallacies than on the other because the

syllogism takes a lot of time and

practice you have to do exercises learn

how to reduce those syllogisms learn you

know there's there's four types

of what they call the moods and the

figures when you get into that there's

four types and they extend to 19 and I

mean there's 64 possibilities and only

16 of them really have validity so it's

learning how to work with syllogisms

because every argument can be reduced to

a syllogism every argument there's no

argument they can I mean you have long

arguments that sometimes take sole

rights you have to use several steps to

get to it and that's why symbolic logic

became a very useful tool for people

that this is all they do is logic

because it enables you to get large

abstract arguments condense down for me

and I'm gonna when I get into the first

section I'm going to talk about the

anima atom that's my what that means

according to our tradition well father

did you know Rossi said about it the the

single most important thing that we have

and the gift that we've been given is

not so much reasoning but it is simple

apprehension it's comprehension it's

understanding and that comes from our

ability to abstract an abstraction is a

uniquely human thing animals as far as

we know do not abstract angels do not

abstract either because they have

immediate intuitive knowledge so they're

they don't go through an abstraction

process and this is why when the angels

were told by Allah to tell them the name

they couldn't do it because they they

can't go through the process of

abstraction they don't abstract in the

way that we do they have immediate

intuitive knowledge of things whereas

the humans have the ability to abstract

and that ability is what enables you to

abstract the divine from the material

world and that's why the material world

is the great a sign of God people that

are looking for proofs for the divine

the proof

is is all around them it's right in

front of them and that's why that people

that deny God are called blind in the

Quran it's a profound spiritual

blindness to deny that there is a

reality behind this that is infinite

that is conscious that it has knowledge

it has will and it has being whether

it's a personal God that we find in the

Abrahamic phase or whether it's an

impersonal God that is more in the

Eastern traditions because you know

Buddhists pray Hindus pray they have a

different concept it's a different

concept of reality of the divine but

they still have an understanding that

there is transcendent being that there

is reality beyond this and and that is

the fifth or nature of humans the

Abrahamic expression of that is through

the personal God and it's our belief

that that is a real expression of God

and that's why we attempt to share it

with others but that that is absolutely

coming out of this ability and and one

aspect of this is really about that and

that's why traditionally theology and

logic were sister Sciences I mean our

our theological tradition used logic it

was part of it and was never divorced

from it after the 4th century 5th

century so subhanak alone time together

one day you know he lanta stopped for

the water lake


Video 3: 

Donovan r-rahim

so that was Sarah - in the Muhammad an

evil scientist even Catalina together a

very very Crone

I love my enemy Matt I limped and I was

in their enemies in the end ma well

studied under seen Muhammad when he was

like he was sent him to semen kit here

just before we start I think it's likely

inshallah that the the Foreign Minister

dr. Hamid is gonna come and address the

group and so it's just everybody could

just have real no quick movements

because the people with him get very

nervous last year we had dinner with him

during Ramadan and he's from cunha so he

invited us he wanted the retina to come

here this year so his team based on his

request really helped us a lot

facilitated the the program so we have a

debt of gratitude to Turkey first and

foremost and then to those people that

were instrumental in helping us make

this a reality so he just for those of

you who don't know who he is he was a

very well-established intellectual and a

professor at the University before he

entered into politics he has a PhD in

political science he's written several

books and they've been translated into

English he's considered a serious

intellectual in Western academia in the

area of political science so he's he's a

heavyweight and it's very generous of

him especially during this time because

as you know there's a lot of things

going on and foreign ministers are for

the Americans it's basically the

Secretary of State same same role like

John Kerry's playing that role right now

so they're very busy they do a lot of

traveling they travel all over it's

international relations so whenever

there's these crises they're the ones

that have to interface with everybody

else so it's but with having said that I

said probably because the nature of

people that have very heavy

responsibilities is they're not always


and they get called so chawla he'll be

here though anyway let me continue on

with the next Veda and then we're going

to finish the movie

alright the number four and Qaeda means

a base it's a foundation it's

unfortunately been you know if you study

touch weed you study what's called

al-qaeda so they were going back to the

United States ask you what you were

studying don't say al Qaeda and if you

have a little book in your you know the

comic I didn't know Ronnie or al-qaeda

about that dia or something so but Qaeda

is a principle or a foundation so how

are it are similar to elude their

foundational principles and in that way

they're related to logic because logic

is based on certain postulates or axioms

so he says in the fourth car sit sit

told you he miss rotten

Akane him in Haiti or Tahoe al hakuta a

Nevada my Abajo where is a ho mess

rotten Bodoni shorty he really P Burdell

Cora fellas immature people Eamonn when

integer or da da Cunha Alice in

memorable Islam the lattice alpha Allah

be alert or for a camel larvae

here to eat lamb in ho war Ithaca in

libertà so often is Allah Allah Allah be

citizen what about you and voila whom

are in Lobby Immonen is Leia who are

hidden men who Madonna Cozumel Jamie

audit razumihin little Azumi ha

Sal Hockney Catalano mal original ad

shaadi vara ajudar aha in la fille ha

camera higher aha

with him women who about American

rahimova lo Dada mental Wafaa what a

meter ha ha ha des end up woman - haha

what a mere tasawwuf papa deficit woman

yeah man I've been a whore Martha at the

hakka food - tez end of an overall en

nogada Belgian barrel Mooji beer in fel

Hekmati well I can what a fuss attorney

Lee hallelujah Amory he Manitowoc Hill

had women who MA and Marcy Attila woman

at a colossal Musharraf eleméry Lila

what the haka 1/3 Attila p.m. he but

happy a TV I know Tomas who keep it

happy far out of that Iike so this is a

long longer than the others but he says

that sitteth away Joe which is what how

he defined Tessa wolf this idea of a

sincere inner directedness towards the

divine is conditioned upon it being in

accordance with what is pleasing to the

truth and by means that pleased that the

the truth they'll help and you cannot

have something that's conditioned upon

something without the condition the

Quran says he is not content or pleased

with his servants to be in a state of

denial or ingratitude alcoa so when I

our Valley rebellion Cobra and in our

pita I think he'll discuss that the

difference between because you have

rebar that a las peñitas not content

with but allows and then you have the

riba that you have things that he's not

content with but he allows and then you

have things that he's content with and

allows so then he says and it's

necessary it follows that the

realization of a man if you are grateful

your Lord will be pleased with you and

so this necessitates an acting according

to submission to the

state of submission to the truth at

least I am and then he says so there's

no tasawwuf without Fick because the

sitka told you is what the tasawwuf is

but it has to be in accord with what's

pleasing and then he says because you

can only know the decrees or the rulings

of God the exoteric ones the external

ones only by that by fit

it's v that teaches you how to bathe how

to pray the ritual formal components

because tough so wolf is dealing with

the interstate

during those rituals but but you have to

do it through the form of the ritual

that if you don't have the form then the

interstate is not going to be able to

function as it should and so he says

what I've ended up at the Sullivan you

can't have fit the formal without the

internal so you can't have the internal

without the external you can't have the

East of Turk without the exoteric you

can't you can't have the fruit without

the the the the whole or the exterior

that protects the fruit right you can't

you can't benefit from a fruit of it if

it has no exterior protection so and

then he says and and whatever mighty

love the Iman you can't have either of

them without Eman so one of them without

the other two it's just it's not lay

aside why are you doing minima one

without the other is impossible you

can't have it so desi manage Amina

related Azumi huh me so you have to

have both because of the inter

dependency of one upon the other in in

the hokum in in this the outward and the

inward like the interdependence of

spirits with bodies so he's giving you

an analogy now this is a type of

reasoning he's showing you an analogy

that enables you to understand this so

he says what I was rude ilaha illah

feeha you can't have the spirit except

in a body there's you can't have the

spirit except in the body

Camela hiya tada ha Allah be ha and in

the same way you cannot have a body that

has life without the spirit so he's

saying the 5th is the body the citta

Torah is the spirit even a paella in the

heck um he says that Ahmad who the the

the deeds are our bodies and he said

that the spirit that are WA are the a

class is the sincerity in the body so

your deeds are like bodies their forms

but those forms are animated by your

sincerity and then he says and this is

why Imam Malik said and this is a famous

statement attributed to my Mac that's

mentioned in many books whoever does

tessa wolf and this was a word we know

that was used during his time already

it's very early it's used very early and

imam attic was aware of the Sufis and

obviously as somebody was sick but to

what yo he himself has a big portion of

this science even though he didn't teach

it formally in the way that it was

formalized later by imam and Junaid and

so he says whoever becomes a Sufi

muntaha Wafaa what a muta and he

doesn't learn fit alongside it fazenda

he will go astray he'll become like a

heretic scindia is a heretic woman tough

economy tasawwuf Akata fess up and if he

learns fit without sincerity without the

pathology oh then he becomes a fasiq so

he he'll be in a state of disobedience

one man Gemini Boehner who market a hot

cup and the one that brings the two


he's the one who's realizes what Imam

Shafi he said soufiane with a peon

vocalist owari de when you were happy

lair council the souviens the fappy

don't be one of them without the other

and he said by Al I'm giving you sound

advice this is in his Diwan Imam Shafi

he said because the PHA without the

tassel wolf he's he doesn't have the

spirit and the Sufi without the fifth he

doesn't have the protection of the so

you need world this is what he's saying

and then he explains Imam city

anisotropic explains - sunda kelapa the

reason the first becomes a heretic is

because he'll end up saying Belgium at

Mujib he he will because he'll have

spiritual states but he's not protected

by the Sharia he's not protected by a

mental understanding and so he'll end up

saying things that are heretical one of

them is that he won't see us Bab and so

he'll actually go into pure determinism

without recognizing free will and then

you go into what's called the anti

Gnomeo state where the anti no meals

were people that did not see the sharia

as binding on them that they were about

they were free from the Sharia because

they had achieved the haqiqa and Imam

Junaid was asked about them and he said

would he say about a man who said that

was all too hetero fear at a near Sharia

I I have arrived and so I'm no longer

bound by the law he said nah I'm God was

all while so the you know Jaheim he's

arrived but he's arrived to hell so

because he'll negate the hikmah and the

accom he'll end up negating the hickman

cam and this is why even machine in his

famous prayer he says that he seeks

refuge Oh had it to heed from the

dangers of tow he'd because you you can

have an experience of tawheed of a pure

unity where you lose sight of sharia and

some of the ecstatic Sufis have shop a

hat that are famous about this Suhani

glory to me

but II see what law you know things like

that they made these utterances that

that came from that the danger of of

having this profound experience of unity

without having the protection of the

constructs that give it a proper

understanding and then he says the fussa

Thani the second one the without

so of he goes astray because li Hulu we

are a MIDI minute told you he'll had Jim

in Houma because he goes he doesn't have

in his actions the Tahajjud this sahaja

that will protect him from these going

astray like he won't he won't have that

sincerity that will protect him from the

dangers that ofup e without sauce olive

has or the sufi without v has those are

the two dangers and and if he doesn't

have the citta then then he falls into

one of those two dangers and he says so

he falls into marcia with allah on the

one hand and then that anything that he

does is does it's done with the

condition of cloth then we start up

phenomen he's supposed to have a class

that's a condition of any action is

sincerity that you do it with a pure

intention in lapa given well a Ichabod o

in lapa Heba Allah is pure and he only

accepts purity so if you don't have

purity in your intentions then you don't

what the hakka

Assad Italy chiami he but happy uppity

minute Emma's who keep it Huck so the

third one has realization - hahaha he

has realization because he is fulfilling

the reality vallabha the ina tamazuki

barack in in the essence of his firmness

of his state of firmness in the truth

he's fulfilling that reality which has

an exoteric and esoteric component so

he's he's solid he's

firm in his p.m. bill Huck he has the

both sides of it so he says so

understand that we got yesterday to the

subject matter now the subject is an

mulled water and and mold or in Arabic

it comes from Wawa

well dr. Shaitan water and deposit

something to place it and so the mold or

is what has been posited here so the

subject matter of logic covers the three

operations of the mind and the three

operations of the mind are understanding

judgment and reasoning understanding is

your grasping of concepts now one of the

things about modern logic which is

called propositional logic as opposed to

term logic traditional logic is called

term logic because it's it's built on

terms so you have building blocks if you

look for instance you could one of the

things what's interesting about Plato's

Academy we don't really know what was

taught in Plato's Academy but we know

geometry was taught in it because you

had to master the books of of geometry

just to get into the Academy and we know

that you could studied at the Academy so

Euclid is the one that wrote all that

stuff down that he was being taught but

the geometry which was translated early

into the Arabic tradition and Imam Shafi

studied geometry in fact said meant

andaman hand essa Jesuit all right you

who whoever learns geometry will have a

very sound opinion in things one of the

interesting things in American history

is Lincoln Abraham Lincoln he taught

himself geometry at the age of 40 he was

a lawyer and he actually writes in his

in in his diaries that the reason that

he study

geometry was because he kept hearing

this word demonstration that the lawyer

has to demonstrate and he said he looked

up the word in several dictionaries and

they just none of them could really give

him a definition of it he said it was

like telling a blind man that blue is a

color right so he ended up taking time

off from his law just to study the

thirteen books of Euclid and he mastered

the books and he could prove all the

demonstration he could demonstrate all

of the theorems and so that's one of the

reasons why he was such a powerful

debater when he debated is that he knew

how to demonstrate something beyond a

reasonable doubt

so the Euclid he bases his book on

definitions he's got these definitions

right then book one there's twenty-three

definitions and then he's got postulates

and he's got common notions these things

are assumptions in other words you can't

prove them you either get them or you

don't so a common notion is the whole is

greater than the part if you if you if

you don't get that you're never gonna

understand geometry and and I don't

think much else because even children

can understand that so the the

definitions he defines things like he

set a point one of the definitions in

the first one as a point has no parts

what does that mean a point has no parts

it doesn't have depth breadth or width

right or a line is a is a segment of a

breathless segment what does that mean

there are mysterious definitions but

those are the assumptions of geometry if

you don't

assume those things then you can't prove

the theorems later on right because the

theorems can be proved but they can only

be proved with those things that are

assumed the common notions the

postulates and the definitions those are

assumed logic is similar in that way

because geometry is to mathematics what

logic is to language it's very very

similar and so the subject of you know

of logic is understanding and the

understanding is is concept you have to

understand you have to grasp concepts

and it's the argument that people that

are committed to to what is

epistemological realism is that the

world is something that makes sense to

us the world is is something that we can

actually understand and that our

experience of the world is true now we

can be fooled obviously there are things

that fool us we can have an immediate

understanding of something I mean a good

example of that is the when we see the

Sun rise in the east and we see it go

down in the West and we talk about the

Sun moving across the sky that is that

is fitrah and it's intuitive and that's

really the basis of Sharia Shetty and

this works from a geocentric model if

you read the Quran it's very clearly

geocentric and that's the fifth or

understanding in reality it's very

possible and there are very very

powerful arguments that have been

postulated and then proven convincingly

that it only appears to be that it's

moving that in fact we're actually

moving around ourselves the earth is

spinning on around itself and then at

the same time it's moving in an orbit

around the Sun and so we're not really

seeing a sunrise we're seeing an earth

turn but nobody says what a beautiful

earth turn right because it's

counterintuitive even a scientist will

not say that because he he really has to

go against his fifth aura experience of

what's in front of them right like

Mullen s or a Dean since we're in Turkey

you know mullah now Sarah Dean this man

who he didn't like came to borrow his

donkey and he didn't want to lend him

his donkey so he said it's really too

bad my brother came yesterday and he he

borrowed he borrowed the donkey and so

the man said I'm sorry to hear that but

thanks anyway he starts to leave and

suddenly hears the donkey in the back of

the house start braying really loud and

he looks he said I thought you I thought

you said your brother borrowed the

donkey some will enough so the Dean said

who are you gonna believe me or the

donkey so who are you gonna believe you

know the scientists or your own senses

what you're experiencing right so the

beetles said it best the fool on the

hill sees the Sun going down and the

eyes in his head see the earth spinning

around and then the second is reason is

is judgment which is once you've have

concepts you can put those concepts

together by either affirming or negating

and this is called a subject and a

predicate in Arabic it's called mould

war and Mamun

so you la la la la is really a negation

and an assertion because what you're

saying is there is no God worthy of

worship there is only one true God so

small case G there is no God worthy of

worship other than the one true God so

you're making a negation it's neffie and

if bat and those are the two things

that the mind can do and it's sent there

in the Shahadah it's neffie and it's bad

that's a judgment you negate and you

assert and Eman is assertion it's toss

deep and that's why they call this in

Arabic to sodium they call it asserting

judgment making a judgment about

something and then finally reasoning

through argumentation or demonstration

so boron is a very high form there are

other ways to argue you can argue

poetically poets argue also you can

argue sophistical II you can argue

rhetorically you can appeal to people's

common sense but demonstration is the

most powerful form of argument so those

are the three operations of the mind and

that's really the subject of logic if

you get that you understand what what

logic is about it's about concepts which

involve definitions because you have to

understand something before you can

define it and then it's about making

judgments propositions which are either

assertions about something or negating

something about something and then the

benefit which is called the thumb rod is

very important because the the thumb is

the fruit it's what come what's what

what do you get from the knowledge like

a tree the purpose of a tree a fruit

bearing tree is the fruit that that's

really what everything that whole tree

is there to bring forth the fruit that's

the benefit to us is the fruit and so

what is the fruit of logic Nordy mahmoud

abbas adi and this is from the mustafa

he says logic is quote an introduction

to all knowledge and the one who has not

mastered it cannot be relied upon for

his knowledge at all its greatest

benefit so I mean that's a pretty pretty

powerful statement Imam al-ghazali is

busy arguing look if you don't

understand this science and he calls it

a propaedeutic science in other words a

science that must be studied before you

study other sciences

an introduction to all knowledge it's a

moped lima litter alone it's an

introduction to all knowledge and the

one who has not mastered it cannot be a

relied upon for his knowledge at all now

some people have criticized him for that

statement and have said well then what

are you saying the selleth they didn't

know logic he actually says in another

place that in the early period their

minds were clear their minds were clear

and they were able to understand things

to make judgments about things and to

reason and argue in ways that were sound

he said but people's minds weakened and

this is a common motif in many cultures

the Golden Age it's it's the idea and

they're actually recently there was an

article written that the ancients were

smarter didn't anybody see that article

was an interesting article just arguing

that that people are actually less smart

now than they were 2,000 years ago we

have more tools now but if you actually

look at the average people and if all

you have to do is read read Euthyphro

you know or Meno you know read Meno you

know we you know Socrates takes a young

servant boy and basically gets him to

understand the Pythagorean theorem very

quickly something that you know in our

culture people go through 12 years of

mathematics and they're hard pressed to

explain that so I mean obviously it's

arguable that they had a teacher like

Socrates it probably would have been a

lot easier so so he says that logic

became necessary because people lost

that ability to reason soundly its

greatest benefit then derives from the

clarity of thought and sound reasoning

skills it engenders in one trained in


are coupled with more effective oral and

written communication it orders thought

it orders the mind much of people's

problems come from our inability to

define things right this is the

foundation or that my definition is the

only definition and you know and through

the looking-glass Humpty Dumpty tells

Alice you know she questions his

definition of word and he says it can

mean whatever I say it means and and the

man that wrote that book was a logician

and and both Alice in Wonderland and

Alice Through the Looking Glass are

dealing with world a world without logic

like he was showing what a world would

be like if we didn't have logic or

reason working the queen says off with

his head and now we'll have the trial

right and Alice says that doesn't make

sense where I come from we have the

trial first and then and she said no

here we do it the other way around

okay modern America so and then that the

topics now topics and subjects are

almost in our culture considered

synonyms but traditionally subjects and

and this is like genus and species a

topic can be a subject and then a

subject can be a topic so but but you

you you can look at it like a subject is

the overarching rubric and then the

topics are those things that fall under

so if we look at like the topic of

Graham the subject of grammar is a

kilometer avi Minaya and Rob will be now

all right so that that's that's like

basically what now

is about right and and so if you look at

the topics of grammar then the topics of

grammar are like the motherfu ad so you

have seven more four ads the mom so bad

you have 15 months so bad the three

maharat right so those are basically

those are topics so the illume be he is

a topic under the rubric of grammar all

right and and so when you look at the

topics of logic the topics of minor or

formal logic so that's called minor or

formal logic the lesser logic logic

Petite consists of simple apprehensions

so the simple apprehension is the

grasping of something you just grasp it

like you know a glass you see if you

grasp a glass all right then

once you grasp what a glass is then you

can bring another type of glass like

this is a wine glass okay but the genus

is glass the species is wine glass

because the difference is this one's

used for wine I mean obviously we're in

Turkey so it's a water glass but you

know in Western culture this is a wine

glass but the idea of a glass is you

grasp it as a simple concept and once

you have that concept if I say go get a

glass you can go to the kitchen and you

it doesn't matter what kind of glass you

understand the universal concept of

glass that's a simple apprehension and

so that's one of the most important

topics and then the concept where we

begin to understand the tesora at a

deeper level right it's it's it's a type

it's a it's an apprehension but the

simple apprehension is a foundation of a

concept and then the terms how we

articulate those what words we use like

see the concept of a glass right I call

this a glass in English but if I said to

I'm judge Mojave

I'm Jed being a Libyan would say today

he is Raja right so now we have a zoo

jaga what's the difference between a zoo

jaja and a glass the difference between

a zoo judge and a glass is that we use

different terms for the same concept so

the concept is universal and that's why

the concept proceeds whatever

articulation we use to describe it or

define it all right and that's why we

can call this many things in many

different languages but every single

person whether he's Arab or Chinese or

Hindu or a Pakistani or it doesn't

matter once he grasped this it doesn't

matter what word that you used to

describe it I mean it matters in terms

of being able to communicate it to

somebody but he still grasps it in his


because I can say how do you say glass

in Turkish

where's Yusef is he here huh Bardock

yeah ba doc so if I say how do you say

glass in Turkish and he says ba doc how

lost he he knows the concept because if

I just said to him you know teru kataoka

he said baduk he doesn't even have no

glass in English I can get that out of

him okay so the concept of glass in your

mind is called baduk that same concept

in my mind is called glass so the

universal concept is the simple

apprehension the term is what's called

the wushu the lovely that we use because

you have Houdini was you the hockey team

that's illusion of how PAP was you then

he was you lovely we should copy how you

write it right so these are different

types of existence that things have and

then there's an argument about whether

it exists in reality in the mind or is

it only real here are they different

that's a metaphysical problem

and and then you have definitions so the

definition the HUD right the own ashati

is knowing what the genus and the

difference is that's how you define it

and that's not always easy because it's

sometimes it's hard to differentiate

between a property and or an accident

and a difference so but this is how you

learn to define things you see what

because we need definitions so when we

talk about governments government is a

genus but it has different species or

species so you have democracy is a

species of government tyranny is a

species of government oligarchy is a

species of government and each one of

them the genus is government but what's

the difference so a tyranny the

difference is it's it's it's it's

absolute rule by Fiat there's there's no

process they just say what what what

they're going to do and they do in and

they implement it and if you have a

dictatorship usually it's one a one

dictator so a dictatorship is where one

person has an absolute power and

arbitrary rule you could do whatever he

wants off with his head so though that's

the way you define things is by knowing

so that's an important aspect in the

topics of logic and then divisions how

you divide them so wine glass is the

type of division there's other types of

glasses that you have right and then Cup

Cup is is its from it the same genus but

it's different from a glass right has a

handle right Arabic does this all fit

Aloha does this because Arabs are very

specific about things right and then

they wouldn't call this a cus cus it

cuts has to have something in it so now

that's a whole other thing right when

you have the vessel and then when

something's in it you describe it with a

different word and that's that's modal

logic that's something really Aristotle

doesn't that came later

you know modal logic is where you get

modalities chain

and then you have judgments so that

study propositions are the kebaya


is a judgment right and then there are

varieties because there's different

types you have you know you have their

different quality and quantity and so

there are different types of

propositions and then you have simple

compound affirmative negative

categorical hypothetical and modal so

like a categorical is John is here

it's categorical it's re there it's true

or its false but it's categorical if

it's nine o'clock then John is here

that's a conditional or a hypothetical

so if a then B a therefore B like that

and then with modal logic it's more like

it might be possible that John's arrived

right so and that's and that or it's

probable that he's here because it's

nine o'clock so that's that's modal

logic it's also there's there's a

because they have deductive inductive

and then you have Charles pierce

identified a third what he called

abductive reasoning which is this type

of reasoning it's like it's a type of

almost guessing but it's guessing when

there's reason there's reason or cause

for a for a judgment like that so and

then you have opposition and that's

there's a square of opposition and it's

the relationship between propositions so

yeah you know a universal affirmative

proposition a universal negative

proposition they call that a and E from

a firm oh and neg oh right affirming

something or negating something so all

animals you know all men are animals

right no angels are animals so one's a

universal of

and the others Universal negative but

then you have some animals our man right

you have that and so that's a particular

a particular where you're affirming and

then you have a particular where you're

negating and so those are that that's

how they work together and there's rules

that go with that so that's when you

learn the square of opposition you learn

the rules of those the contradictory the

the contraries the sub alt all turns and

then you have conversion which is

converting a subject and a predicate

just converting it so no animals are men

or no no angels are animals no animals

are angels just switching them around

and some things can convert and some

things can't

so reasoning then is the PS and that

involves the syllogism and it's

divisions like you have nineteen forms

or figures in the I what are called

moves and so there's different types of

syllogisms they're broken down out of

the nineteen an edge medina POV

identified ten in the quran out of the

nineteen that are used she identified

ten of the different syllogisms that are

used so the Perron definitely uses

they're over thirty arguments in the

quran that are using this type of logic

which interesting enough in the earlier

shadi period some of the upshot he's

wanted to argue that it was a jazz that

the month up in the quran was a jazz but

belani said no that's not part of their

a jazz of quran because humans are

capable of reasoning in that same way so

he didn't consider it acceptable as a as

a miracle of the Quran to say that and

then finally you have induction which

was developed it was first argued by


and in his Novum organum organ on which

was an attempt to rewrite aristotle

organon he was an anti Aristotelian and

then later in the 17th century mill who

was a very very influential person had

in many ways very positive effect on

society but in other ways a very

negative effect very very really

probably one of the most influential

human beings in history but a lot of

what we are in now is is Mills vision of

the world so then you have material or

major logic and that deals with the

contents of syllogisms and involves

categories so that you have ten

categories and we'll get into those like

substance you have the category of

substance and everything has to be a

substance if it's a thing God is not in

the ten categories but everything that

exists is in the ten categories so the

first one is is is about the essence of

it it's it's the johar this is what they

called the Johar in the Arabic tradition

and then you have the the nine accidents

so you have the quality so it's a big

ball it's a little ball talk about the

size of it and then you have the the

sari the quantity and then you so that's

come and then you have cave and then you

have the time the place the possession

the position these are all the the

categories that things fall under and

how we talk about things and then you

have what are called the five arts sorry

the five predicate bowls that I'd follow

the hamsa in the Arabic tradition and

this is the genus the species the

difference the property and the accident

so the Arabs called it the jinns which

is genus same root Jin's and then you

had the new art you have the fossil you

have the hasa and then you had the Arab

and and then you had the the five arts

which are the the Sunna at their humps

these are the ways that we are

you so you have for instance Bora Han is

one type of argument that is used and

he'll do that the ISA Gogi goes into

this at the end and then another

argument is with the the majora bat

that's an argument like arguing from

experiment and things like that so you

have you have axioms you know things

that are agreed upon and then you

know you argue ha baba is an argument in

Sabah is an argument so logical

fallacies are ways that people argue and

those are in the five arts because

sophistical reasoning is a tie it's a

it's a fin people learn it lawyers learn

it they know how to use it there's books

on how to effectively trick people they

study them in if you get a degree in

marketing you'll learn all about that

and then the topics the topics the topos

are you know the things that we use in

argument and this is one of the six

books that the Organon was called the

topics and this involves working with

the five predicate bowls things like

compare and contrast it's related to

rhetoric in that way and then the ystem

dad when you look at the esteemed at

what the ystem that is is what does it

derive its sources from yes the midterm

in Asia what's the method of the science

you mid to who what what's what gives it

it's the flow right the you know the the

mid will Jessa in Arabic is this a meta

forest and dad met and Jessa you have

the ebb and the flow so the tide ebbs it

goes out and then the Med is it comes in

so method is a Sufi terminology as well

right so the what what's giving it its

method what's giving it its flow what's

what's what's coming to give it its

power and so logic does not derive its

sources from any other science

so for instance v derives its sources

from Quran Sunnah hadith right PS these

are the sources each man logic doesn't

drive its source from any other science

it is the singular introductory science

and its sources are observation and

intuition logic is basic tools are

intuited concepts and concomitant

propositions that stem from them

concepts involve the minds abstraction

of universals from particulates which

enables definition propositions involved

composing or separating concepts in a

subject predicate form upon which

judgment is based these two operations

of the mind are how we reason

deductively are inductively in the third

act of the mind argument or

demonstration these three mental

operations are the sources of logic

which is essentially an analytical

inquiry into these acts of the mind

which enable us to reason soundly and

avoid the pitfalls common to an

untrained mind its sources and

foundations such as the laws of identity


and the excluded middle are rooted in

self-evident truths that is any truth

the opposite of which is impossible to

conceive so in in for the Americans here

you know one of the American Creed's one

of our common notions in the United

States is that all men are created equal

right that's in the Constitution in the

Declaration of Independence but what

does he say before that we hold these

truths to be self-evident so what he's

saying is it's us common notion it's a

self-evident truth a self-evident truth

is something the opposite of which is

inconceivable that's a self-evident

truth so that's an that's probably more

of a piece of rhetoric because it's not

so self-evident you have to define those

terms what do you mean by equality

because people are clearly some people

are faster than other people some people

are stronger than other people some

people are taller

some people are lighter darker people

aren't the same so you're using a

mathematical cons

and you're applying it in a sociological

sense which is very problematic right

but we can understand something

intuitively for us it's much easier for

us to say that it's self-evident because

we've been taught certain things in the

modern world that a lot of pre-modern

peoples didn't have but the Prophet SAW

I sent I would argue is the first person

to actually argue that an S of silesia

as nan and mission I don't think you'll

find any any person in human history

before the Prophet I would challenge

somebody to do that to show me a quote

because Aristotle the greatest mind of

the ancient world arguably said there

are people that are natural slaves

because of their inferiority to other

people and women are naturally inferior

to men and that was Aristotle's opinion

which was held by many many people

educated people all over the world for

centuries but the prophet saw I sent him

said no people are equal but they're

also not equal so he meant they were

equal in the eyes of God as human beings

but they are unequal in what they do and

so we're created equal were born equal

but we don't grow up equal right there

are people that that are more beneficial

than others and the prophets Eliza them

said that Hydra comb Hydra comb right

he said Heydrich o Muhammad Allah I'm

Fatima Ali he the best of you and and

those most beloved to God are those that

are most beneficial to his creation to

his dependents which are all these

things that depend on God so that just

means creation really everything but

humans are first and foremost the

dependents of God that most things are

just here to sustain and so

the those three laws are the are these

are the axioms of logic if you if you

don't accept them or understand them

you'll never understand logic so the

first one is the law of identity and the

law of identity is very simple it's

things are what they are right a is a

and a is not not a right there's double

negative a is not not a in other words a

is a so a thing is what it is an

identity right is something that's

identical something else is the same

so identity is your sameness right so

I'm Jed is not aside then we can

differentiate between the two even

though they're brothers they're not the

same they're different and Amjad can't

be Assad than Assad can't be em yet

that's a law of identity the law of

non-contradiction is related to the law

of identity and the law of the excluded

middle is also related that in fact the

law of non-contradiction the law of the

excluded middle some will argue that

they're the same thing and just looking

at from two perspective but there is a

subtle difference between the two but

the law of non-contradiction is simply

that something cannot be and not be at

the same time right something cannot you

know I'm Jed cannot be on Jed and aside

at the same time he's either I'm Jo

Dory's Assad one or the other I'm sorry

to use you as an example but you're

right in front of me so that and then

the law of excluded middle is arguing

that there's not a middle position where

it can be you know it that it's it's

it's either a or it's not a it has to be

one or the other so in in these three

laws of thought this is the foundation

of logic these are axioms so this is the

ystem dad is from intuitive now one of

the things I mentioned last night was

about quantum physics and where the laws

of logic

they break down well there is a law

called the law of the inclusive middle

which is exemplified in certain aspects

of quantum mechanics and the law of the

inclusive middle is also a Buddhist

concept in the Nagarjuna logic which is

an Indian logic that came out of

Buddhism they will argue for the

included middle so something can be

something and not be that thing at the

same time so a light can act as a

particle and a wave particles and waves

are two different things because a wave

is more like a line and a particle is

more like a point right and a point is

not a line a line is made up of points

but it's not a point right so if

something is a point in a line at the

same time then you've got included

middle it's not an exclusive middle

because it's a thing and it's it's

something else at the same time the

Ishod e's use this law of the included

middle in some of their formations and

that's why when you talk about God God

transcends logic he's outside of the

categories and there are certain logical

things that even though we use logic in

theology there are certain things where

it breaks down and what an example of

that is that God is neither create and

neither connected nor disconnected from

his creation so the ashati and logicians

the ashati muta caddy moon say that

allah is a halo with the sanam be hunky

he will hate him false in a nun who he's

neither connected nor disconnected don't

put him in either of those and the

reason for that is because both of them

are problematic so they suspended that

judgment and said that it's neither nor

in this case which is breaks the law of

the excluded middle and the law of

non-contradiction because if we say God

is connected to his creation then what

we're saying is

that the corruptable is part of the

incorruptible or the divine because we

know that creation is by its very nature

corruptible whereas if we say that he's

disconnected then we have a separate

existence beside God so so they chose to

say he is neither connected nor

disconnected this is a super irrational

if you like we're renting to into the

room we're out of Newtonian physics and

we're into quantum physics this this is

a different and these are murajjab and

woods not everything works in logic

logic breaks down but it works in the

realm of Shetty it works in the realm of

cause-and-effect that's here in reality

the majority of Muslims historically did

not believe in cause and effect and this

is even Tamiya one of even tamiya´s real

problems with a shoddy kaanum is that

the Saudis were arguing that what in the

West is attributed to malabon she was a

French Metta physician and they called

occasional ISM Hume also hints at this

although he wasn't an occasional s but

he did argue that we cannot in any way

we cannot assume you know if I do that

intuitively we say that the force of

this acting on this created that sound

what Hume argues is that that's just an

assumption we've seen it so many times

that we assume you know if a then B so

if if this hits this we get the sound he

said that's actually a type of fallacy

this therefore that right the probe

there hoc fallacy so he argues that

that's just the mind does that right to

be fair to the Ashanti's they did argue

that by Shetty there is cause and effect

but in Hakata

there isn't so again at the Newtonian

level they were arguing for Newtonian

law so if you push somebody onto an

oncoming train you caused his death

and you can't say oh there's no

cause-and-effect God did that I'm just a

suburb right you can't make that

argument in an Islamic Shetty out court

no you caused his death but if we look

at it from the istikhara the fit of the

actual action is an action of God he

enabled and that's why tophi occurs when

he enables you to do good killed 11 is

winning and enables you to do bad and

what you're doing is the cusp

so you're acquiring that so this is this

is the way our scholars interpreted and

arguably most of modern physics would

probably argue they're moving towards

that worldview cause and effect in fact

if anybody was following the accelerator

events that happened in burnin in

Switzerland did anybody follow that

right where they're actually seeing

these particles faster than the speed of

light I mean they're basically arguing

we're gonna have to throw cause and

effect out the window if this proves to

be true and they've replicated the

experiment several times so they're

really I mean they're saying it's

undermining so many of their principles

but primarily cause and effect so you

know but cause and effect is the realm

of Sharia but in how pika

most of our scholars argued that there

is no cause and effect there it only

appears that way that in reality every

act is an instantaneous creation whether

you're part of Yoruba Cikini when we

through who you're part of it's asking

if in the hula hope you wash up

hallelujah ba ba ba don't say that the

knife cuts don't say that the fire burns

because that there should be an

intermediary between God's actions and

the action itself the those of innermost

understanding deny that they say it's

impossible so this is an argument that

basically I mean we're getting into

theology a little bit but it's all

related this is the thing I mean we you

know in in the West they've recently

discovered what they call

interdisciplinary studies right

I mean Muslims were never they didn't

have separate disciplines in that way

they saw they had a unified

understanding of knowledge it's a

holistic understanding that all of these

knowledge is relate to each other but

they have what is is better called

transdisciplinary as opposed to

interdisciplinary it transcends the

separateness of these disciplines and

recognizes the interdependence of these

disciplines that that that they're all

really hovering around the same thing

which is existence I mean all everything

because logic is just about existence

it's we're talking about the world

that's why we use logic we're talking

about things in the world so it's all

about metaphysics in the end and

metaphysics you know the great questions

of metaphysics why is there a world

where did the world come from what are

we supposed to do while we're here in

the world and given that we see that the

world ends ie we end I mean the world

might go on but as far as we're

concerned we're gone what happens after

we go if anything these are metaphysical

questions and these are the only real

questions in the world all the other

things you know gee the price of

tomatoes what do you think about that I

mean that is not serious in the light of

your mortality right you know

you think the Yankees are gonna win this

year that is not a really important

question in the scheme of things but

these are the things that people

preoccupy themselves from the big

questions by being obsessed with the

little questions right small-mindedness

and then finally know we've got a few

more the founder and while there the

founder of something is the one that

posited it first and there you know

what's interesting is we had books well

he nodded and asked it he wrote a book

called Keith havin a lion which is a

book of all the first things that

happened like who you know who started

grammar like one day somebody was

sitting around thinking you know we say

these things and why are they in the

order that they're in and what's the

difference between this thing that we're

saying and this thing you know Oh hmm

this one relates to time whereas this

one doesn't

I mean somebody came up with these

things at some point reflected on them

and thought about them I mean Euclid if

you study Euclid it's where did he get

those ideas like whoa where why did they

start thinking about these thing where

did the Pythagorean theorem come from I

mean how did they work that out how did

that how did they how did they work out

the universal law of gravity I mean what

is that like an apple fell on his head

and that's it

I mean how did that well you know just

amazing insights so who's the first one

reasoning is elemental to the human

condition I mean people have been

reasoning as long as we've been here

thinking we're rational beings reasoning

is elemental the human kitchen we're all

gifted naturally with the powers of

reason that govern our action

everybody's doing things for reasons I'm

going to Turkey to study

I'm going to Turkey to have a good time

I'm going to Turkey to see the Topkapi

I'm going to Turkey to find a manuscript

I'm going to Turkey to visit Oh Elly I'm

going to Turkey to get married right

people go to places for reasons and if

they don't there we say they're nuts

like why are you here if you don't know

where you're going any road will get you

there why are you here

you know I'm I'm still thinking about it

haven't worked it out I'm that you can

be in that place as well I'm here

because my mom told me to come and

that's a reason your mom had a reason

you might not or your reason is you're

just being a good Muslim you know doing

what your mom said that's a reason so

according to Muslim sources logic as a

codified science was first developed by

the ancients and remained latent in

other words they hid it from people so

when you read the Muslim early Muslim

books of logic that's what they argue

that they kept it it was too dangerous

to teach people because it can be used

for good and evil

it's a dangerous art in that way because

it's a it's a powerful tool and if you

have this tool you can do a lot of good

with it but you can do a lot of evil and

sophis master this Sophists are our

masters of certain elements that are

found in this science and then Aristotle

who died in 322 I think he's born around

384 Aristotle recorded its rules to find

his terms and revealed its secrets he's

called Aristotle ease or at a stall

right in the Greek tradition he wrote

the six books known collectively as the

organ on which means the tool the Allah

and they're considered the first books

on logic and thus he is typically

considered the founder or the first

teacher of logic so he wrote this

organon that had this the categories the

ten categories he defines those and as a

book on interpretation de interpretación

a and then he's got the prior analytics

the posterior analytics he's got the

topics and then he's got the on

sophistical reasoning like how you can

argue the fallacies so in the Islamic

tradition and Farabi who dies in 961 or

350 and Hadera is considered the second

teacher they call them and Marana

Matheny and then Farabi was a great

intellect to a truly great intellect he

was he was once asked and there's

there's some humility but it's argue

that there's not a whole lot but he was

asked if if he would have had he been

alive at the time Aristotle would would

have he surpassed Aristotle he said no

but I would have been his best student

so so he basically introduced logic he

studied it here in Turkey and he

actually when he arrived in Holub he

arrived wearing Turkish clothes

Byzantine clothes this actually a

Turkish ha